Navigation Links
How black truffles deal with the jumpers in their genome

The black truffle uses reversible epigenetic processes to regulate its genes, and adapt to changes in its surroundings. The 'methylome' - a picture of the genome regulation taking place in the truffle, is published in the open access journal Genome Biology and illustrates how the truffle deals with its complex genome's repeating elements and 'jumping genes'. The authors say this may shed light on how traits like aroma and colour are controlled.

Black truffles (Tuber melanosporum), also known as Prigord truffles, have a syrupy sweet flavor and are highly prized in haute cuisine. They are fungi that grow on the roots of oak and hazelnut trees, and are the second most expensive truffle species. More than 58% of the 125 Mbp black truffle genome is made up of repetition and 'jumping genes' - sections of DNA which can move about within the genome.

DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic modification of the genes, where a methyl group is added to cytosine DNA nucleotides. It is involved in regulating many genetic processes, and scientists analyse methylomes to get a genome-wide picture of it.

Scientists at UCLA and the University of Parma measured the proportion of cytosines that were methylated in the black truffle genome at various developmental stages: fruitbody - the sexual stage and the actual truffle, free living mycelium - the fungus on its own, and ectomycorrhiza - the fungus living together with tree roots.

They found a high rate of methylation - 44%. Transposon element sites were far more likely to be methylated than genes, which tended to be demethylated. They found the methylation could be partly reversed by treatment with 5-azacytidine, an analogue of cytidine, resulting in the reactivation of certain transposons.

Dr Simone Ottonello, from the University of Parma, Italy says: "If extended to black truffles from different geographic areas, epigenomic analyses, such as the one described in this work, may shed light on the relationships between DNA methylation and transposon-mediated genome shaping, intraspecific variability and commercially relevant organoleptic traits such as aroma and color"

Dr Matteo Pellegrini, from UCLA says: "This reversible methylation may increase the plasticity of the truffle genome, allowing it to adapt to its surroundings. Because the truffle lives underground and doesn't have an active spore dispersal system, it might need this plasticity to adapt to sudden environmental changes."

Dr Pao-Yang Chen, from UCLA says: "Instead of the methylated gene body or promoters that we usually see in plants and animals, the black truffle has very little gene body methylation and it appears that the methylation is occurring in the transposon. All this means the truffle has a very unique pattern of DNA methylation which may play a role in the gene regulation."


Contact: Anna Perman
BioMed Central

Related biology news :

1. New study sheds light on survivors of the Black Death
2. Picky male black widow spiders prefer well-fed virgins
3. Study: Black carbon is ancient by the time it reaches seafloor
4. Bucking conventional wisdom, researchers find black sea bass tougher than expected
5. Mentoring the next generation of black chemists (video)
6. Rio Grande fift, Rum Jungle complex, Black Sea, West Africa craton, California faults
7. Feast or fancy? Black widows shake for love
8. Researcher finds way to identify aggressive cancers in black women
9. Scientists unearth secrets of Périgord truffles, the culinary black diamond
10. Black bears return to Missouri indicates healthy forests
11. Reversal of the black widow myth
Post Your Comments:
(Date:10/27/2015)... -- In the present market scenario, security is one ... verticals such as banking, healthcare, defense, electronic gadgets, and ... secure & simplified access control and growing rate of ... bank accounts, misuse of users, , and so on. ... and smartphones are expected to provide potential opportunities for ...
(Date:10/26/2015)... India , October 26, 2015 ... --> adds ... 2015 to 2021 as well as ... 2015-2019 research reports to its collection ... . --> ...
(Date:10/23/2015)... DUBLIN , Oct. 23, 2015 Research ... of the "Global Voice Recognition Biometrics Market 2015-2019" ... --> --> The global voice recognition ... during 2014-2019. --> ... 2015-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... 2015  PharmAthene, Inc. (NYSE MKT: PIP) announced  today ... rights plan (Rights Plan) in an effort to preserve ... under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). ... use of its NOLs could be substantially limited if ... Section 382 of the Code. In general, an ownership ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... 25, 2015  Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: NBIX ... and CEO of Neurocrine Biosciences, will be presenting at ... New York . .   ... approximately 5 minutes prior to the presentation to download ... presentation will be available on the website approximately one ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... The Global Genomics Industry ... and in-depth study on the current state of ... ) , The report provides ... classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Genomics ... including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Calif. , Nov. 24, 2015 Cepheid ... will be speaking at the following conference, and invited ... New York, NY      Tuesday, December 1, 2015 ... New York, NY      Tuesday, December 1, 2015 ... Jaffray Healthcare Conference, New York, NY ...
Breaking Biology Technology: