Navigation Links
Hopkins team discovers sweet way to detect prediabetes
Date:7/8/2010

Having discovered a dramatic increase of an easy-to-detect enzyme in the red blood cells of people with diabetes and prediabetes, Johns Hopkins scientists say the discovery could lead to a simple, routine test for detecting the subtle onset of the disease, before symptoms or complications occur and in time to reverse its course.

Pilot studies, published online April 22 in Diabetes, show the enzyme O-GlcNAcase is up to two to three times higher in people with diabetes and prediabetes than in those with no disease: "That's a big difference, especially in an enzyme that's as tightly regulated as this one is," says Gerald Hart, Ph.D., the DeLamar Professor and director of biological chemistry at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

Building on their previous research, which showed how an abundant but difficult-to-detect sugar switch known as O-GlcNAc (pronounced oh-GLICK-nack) responded to nutrients and stress, the Hopkins team knew this small molecule was elevated in the red cells of patients with diabetes. "The question was whether the elevation happened in the earliest stages of diabetes and therefore might have value as a diagnostic tool," Hart said.

To find out, Kyoungsook Park, a graduate student of biological chemistry working in Hart's lab, focused on levels of O-GlcNAcase, an enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc in red cells. O-GlcNAc modifies many of the cell's proteins to control their functions in response to nutrients and stress. Nutrients, such as glucose and lipids, increase the extent of O-GlcNAc modification of proteins affecting their activities. When the extent of O-GlcNAc attached to proteins becomes too high, as occurs in diabetes, it is harmful to the cell.

First, Park purified human red blood cells by depleting them of their main constituent, hemoglobin. The samples had been collected by two sources the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, or NIDDK, and Johns Hopkins Diabetes Center in collaboration with Christopher D. Saudek, M.D. and characterized as normal (36 samples), prediabetes (13 samples) and type 2 diabetes (53 samples) according to traditional tests that require patient fasting. Defined as normal hemoglobin A1c with impaired fasting glucose, prediabetes is an intermediate state of altered glucose metabolism with a heightened risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other associated complications.

Then, she measured and compared the amount of the enzyme protein within the red cells associated with the sugar molecule, O-GlcNAc.

"When I checked the enzyme levels and saw how dramatically different they were between the prediabetic cells and the controls, I thought I did something wrong," Park says. "I repeated the test five times until I could believe it myself."

Hart speculates that in diabetes and prediabetes, it's not a good thing for the increased amount of sugar to be attached to proteins, so the cell is responding by elevating the enzyme that gets rid of it.

"This is an example of how basic research is directly affecting a serious disease," Hart says, adding that his team's pilot studies encourage further investigation of a method that potentially could fill the void that currently exists for an easy, accurate routine test for prediabetes. "Only a much larger clinical trial will determine if, by measuring O-GlcNAcase, we can accurately diagnose prediabetes."


'/>"/>

Contact: Maryalice Yakutchik
myakutc1@jhmi.edu
443-287-2251
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. 2 Hopkins scientists awarded European honorary doctorates
2. Hopkins researchers put proteins right where they want them
3. Pancreatic Cancer Action Network-AACR Pathway to Leadership Grant awarded to Johns Hopkins Early Career investigator
4. Johns Hopkins scientists discover a controller of brain circuitry
5. Hopkins scientists ID 10 genes associated with a risk factor for sudden cardiac death
6. Johns Hopkins scientists pull proteins tail to curtail cancer
7. Johns Hopkins researchers detect sweet cacophony while listening to cellular cross-talk
8. Professor discovers way to slow the growth of malignant melanoma
9. York U autism-related study discovers how drug interferes with neuronal cell function
10. La Jolla Institute scientist leads team which discovers important new player in diabetes onset
11. McGill team discovers a piece of the puzzle for individualized cancer therapy via gene silencing
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/15/2016)... April 15, 2016  A new partnership announced ... accurate underwriting decisions in a fraction of the ... priced and high-value life insurance policies to consumers ... With Force Diagnostics, rapid testing (A1C, Cotinine ... readings (blood pressure, weight, pulse, BMI, and activity ...
(Date:4/13/2016)... 13, 2016  IMPOWER physicians supporting Medicaid patients in ... new clinical standard in telehealth thanks to a new ... higi platform, IMPOWER patients can routinely track key health ... mass index, and, when they opt in, share them ... to a local retail location at no cost. By ...
(Date:3/29/2016)... 2016 LegacyXChange, Inc. (OTC: ... SelectaDNA/CSI Protect are pleased to announce our successful effort ... variety of writing instruments, ensuring athletes signatures against counterfeiting ... from athletes on LegacyXChange will be assured of ongoing ... Bill Bollander , CEO states, "By ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... Mass. , June 23, 2016   ... development of novel compounds designed to target cancer ... napabucasin, has been granted Orphan Drug Designation from ... the treatment of gastric cancer, including gastroesophageal junction ... stemness inhibitor designed to inhibit cancer stemness pathways ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... YM (Yeast and Mold) microbial test has received AOAC Research Institute approval 061601. ... microbial tests introduced last year,” stated Bob Salter, Vice President of Regulatory and ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Supplyframe, the Industry Network for ... Design Lab . Located in Pasadena, Calif., the Design Lab’s mission is to ... are designed, built and brought to market. , The Design Lab is Supplyframe’s ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... NEWPORT BEACH, Calif. , June 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... offering new biological discoveries to the medical community, has ... and co-founder Matthew Nunez . "We ... provide us with the capital we need to meet ... funding will essentially provide us the runway to complete ...
Breaking Biology Technology: