Navigation Links
HIV protein unveils vaccine target

An international study headed by a UC Davis scientist describes how a component of a potential HIV vaccine opens like a flower, undergoing one of the most dramatic protein rearrangements yet observed in nature. The finding could reveal new targets for vaccines to prevent HIV infection and AIDS. A paper describing the work was published online this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

In the new study, researchers from the U.S., Sweden and France explored the structure and behavior of the HIV envelope protein complex, which could potentially serve as a component of a vaccine aimed at eliciting the human immune system to generate antibodies against HIV.

"By opening up these less exposed regions, we might be able to raise more broadly cross-reactive antibodies to HIV," said R. Holland Cheng, professor of molecular and cellular biology at UC Davis and senior author of the study.

HIV infects a type of white blood cell called the CD4 T cell, weakening the immune system and leading to AIDS. HIV attaches to these cells through the envelope protein complex, which is made up of three gp120 proteins and three gp41 proteins, Cheng said.

First, the gp120 protein attaches to a CD4 protein on the victim cell's membrane. Then it uses gp41 to punch a hole through the membrane.

UC Davis graduate student Carlos Moscoso and project scientist Li Xing, working in Cheng's laboratory, used a cryoelectron microscope to study the structure of the complex and how it changes when it is exposed to a piece of the CD4 protein. A cryoelectron microscope derives three-dimensional images of complex protein structures from samples frozen in liquid nitrogen.

They found that when the HIV protein complex attaches to a CD4 protein, it rotates and flattens, exposing more of the gp41 proteins in the middle probably allowing the gp41 protein to get closer to the cell membrane so it can lock on.

It also potentially exposes an area of the virus that would be vulnerable to attack by the immune system, Cheng said. If a person were vaccinated and had antibodies to such a protein region, they might be able to stop the virus at the point of invading the CD4 T cell.

The gp120 protein itself varies considerably between strains, so it has been difficult to make an effective vaccine against it. But these hidden protein regions vary less between different strains of HIV, Cheng said.

Cheng's group is part of the HIV Research and Design consortium formed by the National Institutes of Health to pursue new targets for HIV vaccines. In future work, the consortium plans to test potent antibodies from HIV-positive people who have survived without developing AIDS to see if the antibodies recognize the new potential vaccine targets.

The envelope protein complex was prepared by Novartis Diagnostics and Vaccines Inc. of Cambridge, Mass.


Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Related biology news :

1. Photonic crystal biosensors detect protein-DNA interactions
2. Penn biophysicists create new model for protein-cholesterol interactions in brain and muscle tissue
3. Dont forget the vitamin A when working with its carrier protein
4. Saliva proteins could help detection of oral cancer
5. The structure of the Mre11 protein bound to DNA
6. New lab manual focuses on essential methods for purifying and characterizing proteins
7. Proteins in sperm unlock understanding of male infertility says new study
8. Response to immune protein determines pathology of multiple sclerosis
9. Columbia to award 2008 Horwitz Prize to Arthur Horwich & Ulrich Hartl for cellular protein folding
10. Human protein atlas will help pinpoint disease
11. How neuronal activity leads to Alzheimers protein cleavage
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
HIV protein unveils vaccine target
(Date:10/29/2015)... YORK , Oct. 29, 2015 ... technology, announced a partnership with 2XU, a global ... to deliver a smart hat with advanced bio-sensing ... and other athletes to monitor key biometrics to ... the strategic partnership, the two companies will bring together ...
(Date:10/27/2015)... 2015 Synaptics Inc. (NASDAQ: SYNA ), the ... has adopted the Synaptics ® ClearPad ® ... its newest flagship smartphones, the Nexus 5X by LG ... --> --> Synaptics works closely ... collaboration in the joint development of next generation technologies. ...
(Date:10/26/2015)... -- Delta ID Inc., a company focused on bringing secure ... announced its ActiveIRIS® technology powers the iris recognition feature ... NTT DOCOMO, INC in Japan . ... include iris recognition technology, after a very successful introduction ... 2015, world,s first smartphone to have this capability. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... 2015 Cepheid (NASDAQ: CPHD ) today ... following conference, and invited investors to participate via webcast. ...      Tuesday, December 1, 2015 at 11.00 a.m. Eastern Time ...      Tuesday, December 1, 2015 at 11.00 a.m. Eastern Time ... New York, NY      Tuesday, December 1, 2015 ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... (PRWEB) , ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... maintain healthy metabolism. But unless it is bound to proteins, copper is also ... Health (NIH), researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) will conduct a systematic study ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Inc., a worldwide provider of clinical research services headquartered in ... has set a new quarterly earnings record in Q3 of 2015.  ... Q3 of 2014 to Q3 of 2015.   ... the establishment of an Asia-Pacific office to ... and Mexico , with the establishment ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... ... The Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA), led by its Executive Council, has ... Prix, to represent the First–Person View (FPV) racing community. , FPV racing has exploded ... of racing and several new model aviation pilots have joined the community because of ...
Breaking Biology Technology: