Navigation Links
'Guardian of the genome': Protein helps prevent damaged DNA in yeast
Date:7/31/2010

ITHACA, N.Y. Like a scout that runs ahead to spot signs of damage or danger, a protein in yeast safeguards the yeast cells' genome during replication -- a process vulnerable to errors when DNA is copied -- according to new Cornell research.

Researchers from Cornell University's Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology have discovered how a protein called Mec1 plays the role of "guardian of the genome," explained Marcus Smolka, assistant professor of molecular biology and genetics. The findings "DNA Damage Signaling Recruits the Rtt107-Slx4 Scaffolds via Dpb11 to Mediate Replication Stress Response," are detailed in the journal Molecular Cell (July 30, 2010).

Previous studies have shown that cells lacking Mec1 accumulate damaged DNA and become more sensitive to agents that interfere with replication. The researchers report that the Mec1 protein monitors and repairs the machinery responsible for replicating the DNA. At times, when DNA becomes damaged, the replication machinery can actually detach from the DNA -- like a train coming off a track -- but Mec1 coordinates the repair of the machinery and the DNA itself, allowing it to restart and continue replicating.

"Mec1 organizes the cell's response against things that jeopardize the integrity of the genome," Smolka said.

During the replication process, Mec1 accumulates at trouble spots such as lesions in the DNA or other blocks to replication. Mec1 is known as a kinase, a type of enzyme that modifies other proteins by adding a phosphate group to them (a process called phosphorylation), which then leads to a functional change in the protein. The researchers report that Mec1 adds a phosphate group to a protein known as Slx4, which then triggers Slx4 to anchor to the replication machinery. Slx4 then can employ a variety of tools to repair DNA and the replication machinery.

The findings are important because researchers have discovered counterparts (called orthologues) to Mec1, other related proteins with similar biological pathways in humans. Also, mutations to the human genes that produce Mec1 and related proteins can lead to cancer predisposition and neurological disorders. At the same time, cancer cells employ their own similar replication repair system, so understanding the process may help researchers design interventions that interrupt replication of cancer DNA.

Recently, other researchers discovered that the human version of Mec1, called ATR, phosphorylates a protein that is the human counterpart to Slx4. The next step, Smolka said, will be to see if after phosphorylation the human Slx4 also anchors to the replication machinery to repair any damaged machinery or DNA.


'/>"/>

Contact: Blaine Friedlander
bpf2@cornell.edu
607-254-8093
Cornell University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. New book reviews research on p53 -- the guardian of the genome -- and its relatives
2. It takes a genome: How a clash between our genes and modern life is making us sick
3. Scientists post lower speed limit for cell-signaling protein assembly
4. Nanoblasts from laser-activated nanoparticles move molecules, proteins and DNA into cells
5. Protein identified that can result in fragile bones
6. Engineered coral pigment helps scientists to observe protein movement
7. BU wins $1.6M NIH grant to target protein-protein interactions
8. A collaboration solves the herpes virus protein structure providing new drug therapy directions
9. Specific protein may help neurons fix themselves in Parkinsons patients
10. Protein important in diabetes may also play a key role in heart disease, other disorders
11. New role for the JNK protein
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/7/2016)... TORONTO , June 7, 2016  Syngrafii ... begun a business relationship that includes integrating Syngrafii,s ... pilot branch project. This collaboration will result in ... for the credit union, while maintaining existing document ... http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160606/375871LOGO ...
(Date:6/1/2016)... Favorable Government Initiatives Coupled With ... Identification to Boost Global Biometrics System Market Through 2021  ... report, " Global Biometrics Market By Type, By ... 2011 - 2021", the global biometrics market is projected ... of growing security concerns across various end use sectors ...
(Date:5/9/2016)... May 9, 2016 Elevay is ... to expanding freedom for high net worth professionals seeking ... today,s globally connected world, there is still no substitute ... ever duplicate sealing your deal with a firm handshake. ... by taking advantage of citizenship via investment programs like ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... Rolf K. Hoffmann, former senior ... the University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School effective June 27. ... Kenan-Flagler, with a focus on the school’s international efforts, leading classes and participating ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... , June 24, 2016 Epic Sciences ... detects cancers susceptible to PARP inhibitors by targeting ... cells (CTCs). The new test has already been ... in multiple cancer types. Over 230 ... damage response pathways, including PARP, ATM, ATR, DNA-PK ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... WI (PRWEB) , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... supplements, is pleased to announce the launch of their brand, UP4™ Probiotics, into ... for over 35 years, is proud to add Target to its list of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Houston Methodist Willowbrook Hospital has signed ... to serve as their official health care provider. ... will provide sponsorship support, athletic training services, and ... volunteers, athletes and families. "We are ... and to bring Houston Methodist quality services and ...
Breaking Biology Technology: