Navigation Links
Glass sponges take advantage of retreating Antarctic ice shelves
Date:7/12/2013

The breakup and collapse of the Larsen A ice shelf in the western Weddell Sea in 1995 has resulted in fundamental changes to life on the sea bed in less than two decades. As reported by biologists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in the cover story of the current issue of the scientific journal Current Biology, Antarctic glass sponges have been the prime beneficiaries of the disappearance of the ice shelf. To the surprise of the scientists, the density of these archaic filter-feeders has increased threefold between 2007 and 2011 despite only low plankton food supply and water temperatures of minus 2 degrees Celsius. The sponges had also grown remarkably quickly and had completely supplanted competitors for food. The results show that communities at the bottom of the western Weddell Sea react considerably more quickly to climate-related changes than previously thought.

Glass sponges (Hexactinellida), an archaic group of animals at the basis of the animal kingdom, dominate the shallow seafloor in the Antarctic. Many biologists believed that glass sponges grew so slowly that two-metre behemoths would have to be around 10,000 years or older. These assumptions have now been challenged in a new study led by scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and published in the current issue of the scientific journal Current Biology.

During a Polarstern expedition to the poorly accessible region of the former Larsen A ice shelf, AWI biologists Laura Fillinger and Claudio Richter, together with colleagues from the University of Gothenburg and the Senkenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum; succeeded in demonstrating that glass sponges can grow rapidly within a short period of time. "We were surprised by what we saw on our video screens in 2011 when we lowered our remotely operated vehicle onto the sea bed at a depth of around 140 metres. In an area, which had revealed large numbers of ascidians and only occasional glass sponges during an earlier expedition with the ice-breaking research vessel 'Polarstern' in 2007, four years later we found no ascidians at all. These pioneer species had completely disappeared, replaced by three times the number of glass sponges, including several juvenile individuals", reports Laura Fillinger, lead author of the study.

Until this time scientists had assumed that communities on the Antarctic sea bed only change very slowly because of the very low temperature (minus two degrees Celsius) and patchy supply of food in pack-ice covered waters. "We now know that glass sponges may undergo boom-and-bust cycles, allowing them to quickly colonize new habitats in a short period of time", says project leader Prof. Dr. Claudio Richter.

"To the organisms living on the sea bed, the disappearance of the hundred-metre-thick Larsen A ice shelf must have been like the heavens opening up above them", he adds. Where cold, darkness and food shortages had previously reigned, sunlight now allows plankton growth in surface waters and, hence, a rain of food comes down to the sea bed.

Glass sponges feed on the smallest plankton, which they filter from the water. The animals grow to a size of up to two metres, and their vase-like bodies provide perfect hiding, spawning and shelter opportunities for fish, invertebrates and many other sea dwellers. "Like corals, sponges create their own habitats. To an extent they are like cities on the sea bed. There is something going on wherever they grow, and this attracts other sea dwellers to them", says Claudio Richter.

New spaces are being created for such underwater worlds wherever the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula are retreating or breaking up. However, scientists cannot yet definitively say whether this means that glass sponges will be one of the beneficiaries of climate change. Laura Fillinger: "There are still too many unknowns to make predictions. One example is the question of the influence of competitors: currently we are witnessing a fierce competition for space on the sea bed. Another concerns predators: in our dive in 2011 we hardly saw any of the snails and starfish, which feed on glass sponges. However, it is possible that these voracious predators will follow suit and wreak havoc."

Marine biologists at the Alfred Wegener Institute will continue to monitor the changes to communities in the western Weddell Sea. In January 2013, the planned dives in the area of the former Larsen A ice shelf had to be called off due to the solid pack ice in the Weddell Sea. However, Claudio Richter and his team hope for better pack-ice conditions during future Polarstern trips to this part of the Antarctic so that they can use new investigative methods to discover more about the life cycle of the glass sponges.


'/>"/>

Contact: Sina Loeschke
medien@awi.de
49-471-483-12008
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Spinning up antibacterial silver on glass
2. From grains of volcanic glass to continental rifting: New Geosphere articles now online
3. Glass offers improved means of storing UKs nuclear waste
4. Feel-good glass for windows
5. NJIT, Chinas Bengbu Glass Institute sign agreement for R&D, training
6. Inspired by deep sea sponges: Creating flexible minerals
7. Bacteria on marine sponges can develop capacity to move and inhibit biofilm formation
8. Microbes, sponges, and worms add to coral reef woes
9. Toughened silicon sponges may make tenacious batteries
10. NOAA scholarship awarded to Jan Vicente to study the impact of ocean acidification on marine sponges
11. Nanosponges soak up oil again and again
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/30/2017)... The research team of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) ... ground breaking 3D fingerprint minutiae recovery and matching technology, pushing contactless ... use in identification, crime investigation, immigration control, security of access and ... ... A research team led by Dr Ajay Kumar ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... , March 28, 2017 The ... Hardware (Camera, Monitors, Servers, Storage Devices), Software (Video Analytics, ... Region - Global Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, ... 2016 and is projected to reach USD 75.64 Billion ... and 2022. The base year considered for the study ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... Forecast to 2025" report to their offering. ... The Global Biometric Vehicle Access System ... over the next decade to reach approximately $1,580 million by 2025. ... forecasts for all the given segments on global as well as ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:9/18/2017)... ... September 18, 2017 , ... ... the move of the SPIE Digital Library ( http://www.spiedigitallibrary.org ) on 15 August ... create an improved user experience and incorporate a number of enhancements and new ...
(Date:9/17/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... September 17, 2017 , ... ... from the South Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (KMFDS) for an ... GLS-5300, against the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The study in Korea ...
(Date:9/14/2017)... UK (PRWEB) , ... September 14, 2017 , ... ... most innovative minds in pharma and biotech at the third annual DrugDev Summit, ... conference that brings together the world’s most progressive clinical research leaders for best ...
(Date:9/14/2017)... Australia (PRWEB) , ... September 14, 2017 , ... ... first viscoelastic Freedom Lumbar Disc case in Australia. Dr. Steven Yang completed the ... pain as a result of a degenerative lumbar disc at level L5-S1. The ...
Breaking Biology Technology: