Navigation Links
Fungi can tell us about the origin of sex chromosomes
Date:3/17/2008

Fungi do not have sexes, just so-called mating types. A new study being published today in the prestigious journal PLoS shows that there are great similarities between the parts of DNA that determine the sex of plants and animals and the parts of DNA that determine mating types in certain fungi. This makes fungi interesting as new model organisms in studies of the evolutionary development of sex chromosomes.

In the plant and animal kingdoms there are individuals of different sexes, that is, bearers of either many tiny sex cells (males) or a few large ones (females). In the third eukaryote kingdom (organisms with DNA gathered in the cell nucleus), the fungi kingdom, there are no sexes but rather a simpler and more primitive system of different so-called mating types. These are distinguished by different variants of a few specific genes.

There are many ways to determine sex. In humans it is done by sex chromosomes. It is thought that this sex difference arose in the plant and animal kingdom from the simpler system of mating types and that this happened several times independently of each other throughout evolution. The change is believed to have happened with the inhibition of a step in the copying process in DNA, which led to two separate chromosomes. These then developed further over a long period of time.

In humans, sex chromosomes are believed to have developed over the last 300 million years from a common proto-sex chromosome, says Hanna Johannesson, who directed the study.

The new study shows for the first time that even though fungi do not have sexes, there are many similarities between the parts of the genome that determine sex in plants and animals and the parts of the genome that control mating types in certain fungi. The research group specifically studied a spore sac fungus (Neurospora tetrasperma) and can show that the similarities are great, regarding both present-day structure and the way in which it arose.

Its hard to study the evolution of sex chromosomes, partly because so many different and important sex-specific characters are tied to them. But much of this can be avoided if we use simpler systems, like fungi, as models.


'/>"/>

Contact: Hanna Johannesson
Hanna.Johannesson@ebc.uu.se
46-070-485-6094
Uppsala University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Secrets of cooperation between trees and fungi revealed
2. Mechanisms of plant-fungi symbiosis characterized by DOE Joint Genome Institute
3. Study shows Darwin was wrong about the origins of chickens
4. Darwin was wrong about the wild origin of the chicken
5. Poll Shows Strong Doubts About Effectiveness of Federal Employment Verification System
6. What farmers think about GM crops
7. Is hybridoma production about to take a quantum leap forward?
8. Tomato pathogen genome may offer clues about bacterial evolution at dawn of agriculture
9. Mummy lice found in Peru may give new clues about human migration
10. Its all about geometry: Protein contact surfaces hold key to cures
11. Man-made changes bring about new epoch in Earths history
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/16/2016)... 16, 2016   EyeLock LLC , a market ... opening of an IoT Center of Excellence in ... the development of embedded iris biometric applications. ... convenience and security with unmatched biometric accuracy, making it ... from DNA. EyeLock,s platform uses video technology to deliver ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... India , April 28, 2016 ... Infosys (NYSE: INFY ), and Samsung SDS, a ... that will provide end customers with a more secure, ... services.      (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20130122/589162 ) , ... services, but it also plays a fundamental part in enabling ...
(Date:4/19/2016)... April 20, 2016 The new ... a compact web-based "all-in-one" system solution for all door ... reader or the door interface with integration authorization management ... control systems. The minimal dimensions of the access control ... the building installations offer considerable freedom of design with ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/26/2016)... Q BioMed Inc. (OTCQB: QBIO), a biotechnology acceleration ... at the 5th Annual Marcum MicroCap Conference on Thursday, June ... at the Grand Hyatt Hotel. The Company,s presentation ... scheduled to begin at 11a.m ET in the Broadway Room. ... and outline milestones for the balance of 2016 and beyond. ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... Medistem Panama Inc. at the City of Knowledge in Panama, a 6 ... cells in the US earlier this year following FDA approval of a second ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... cuvettes are used in leading laboratories all over the globe. Their cute firefly ... addition to manufacturing awesome cuvettes, FireflySci makes spectrophotometer calibration standards that never require ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... Thailand’s ... at BIO 2016 in San Francisco. Located at booth number 7301, representatives from ... answer questions and discuss the Thai biotechnology and life sciences sector. , ...
Breaking Biology Technology: