Navigation Links
Fungi can tell us about the origin of sex chromosomes
Date:3/17/2008

Fungi do not have sexes, just so-called mating types. A new study being published today in the prestigious journal PLoS shows that there are great similarities between the parts of DNA that determine the sex of plants and animals and the parts of DNA that determine mating types in certain fungi. This makes fungi interesting as new model organisms in studies of the evolutionary development of sex chromosomes.

In the plant and animal kingdoms there are individuals of different sexes, that is, bearers of either many tiny sex cells (males) or a few large ones (females). In the third eukaryote kingdom (organisms with DNA gathered in the cell nucleus), the fungi kingdom, there are no sexes but rather a simpler and more primitive system of different so-called mating types. These are distinguished by different variants of a few specific genes.

There are many ways to determine sex. In humans it is done by sex chromosomes. It is thought that this sex difference arose in the plant and animal kingdom from the simpler system of mating types and that this happened several times independently of each other throughout evolution. The change is believed to have happened with the inhibition of a step in the copying process in DNA, which led to two separate chromosomes. These then developed further over a long period of time.

In humans, sex chromosomes are believed to have developed over the last 300 million years from a common proto-sex chromosome, says Hanna Johannesson, who directed the study.

The new study shows for the first time that even though fungi do not have sexes, there are many similarities between the parts of the genome that determine sex in plants and animals and the parts of the genome that control mating types in certain fungi. The research group specifically studied a spore sac fungus (Neurospora tetrasperma) and can show that the similarities are great, regarding both present-day structure and the way in which it arose.

Its hard to study the evolution of sex chromosomes, partly because so many different and important sex-specific characters are tied to them. But much of this can be avoided if we use simpler systems, like fungi, as models.


'/>"/>

Contact: Hanna Johannesson
Hanna.Johannesson@ebc.uu.se
46-070-485-6094
Uppsala University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Secrets of cooperation between trees and fungi revealed
2. Mechanisms of plant-fungi symbiosis characterized by DOE Joint Genome Institute
3. Study shows Darwin was wrong about the origins of chickens
4. Darwin was wrong about the wild origin of the chicken
5. Poll Shows Strong Doubts About Effectiveness of Federal Employment Verification System
6. What farmers think about GM crops
7. Is hybridoma production about to take a quantum leap forward?
8. Tomato pathogen genome may offer clues about bacterial evolution at dawn of agriculture
9. Mummy lice found in Peru may give new clues about human migration
10. Its all about geometry: Protein contact surfaces hold key to cures
11. Man-made changes bring about new epoch in Earths history
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/28/2017)... Spanien, 27. Februar 2017  EyeLock LLC, ein marktführendes ... seine erstklassige biometrische Lösung zur Iris-Erkennung auf ... X16 LTE auf dem Mobile World Congress ... Qualcomm-Stand in Halle 3, Stand 3E10, vorstellen. ... Sicherheitsplattform Qualcomm Haven™ – eine Kombination aus ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... N.Y. and PORTLAND, Ore. ... ) and the Avamere Family of Companies (Avamere Health ... today announced a six-month research study that will apply ... improve eldercare at senior living and health centers. By ... Avamere hopes to gain insights into physical and environmental ...
(Date:2/13/2017)... , Feb. 13, 2017 Former 9/11 Commission ... Judiciary Committee, Janice Kephart of Identity Strategy ... Donald Trump,s "Executive Order: Protecting the Nation ... 27, 2017):  "As President Trump,s ,Travel Ban, ... has now essentially banned the travel ban, it is ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:3/22/2017)... Washington, USA, and CARDIFF, UK (PRWEB) , ... March 21, 2017 ... ... regional blood flow and tissue oxygenation, is being explored as a way to track ... near-infrared spectroscopy study on tonic pain activation by cold pressor test ,” published today ...
(Date:3/22/2017)... and PETACH TIKVAH, Israel , ... BCLI), a leading developer of adult stem cell technologies ... , Chief Executive Officer, will provide an update on ... 2 nd Annual Neuroscience Biopartnering and Investment Forum, ... New York Academy of Sciences. ...
(Date:3/22/2017)... , March 22, 2017   Invitae Corporation ... genetic information companies, today announced the availability of ... Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) , a neuromuscular ... genetic disorders among infants as well as a ... The new test, announced during the American College ...
(Date:3/20/2017)... ... March 20, 2017 , ... HOLLOWAY ... companies, recently announced it will debut a brand new pressure vessel, the intelliVessel™, ... is controlled by a touch screen panel and features other revolutionary operations that ...
Breaking Biology Technology: