Navigation Links
From one cell to many: How did multicellularity evolve?
Date:1/24/2014

restingly, this "alignment-of-fitness" requires a "bottleneck" or unicellular stage when the organism consists of just one cella spore, zygote, or uninucleate asexual propagule. This is necessary so that all subsequent cells share similar genetic material.

The "export-of-fitness" stage is the second step necessary to the evolutionary process of multicellularity. This requires that cells work together for a common goal of reproducing more cohesive units, or individuals, like themselves and thereby work in a concerted way toward increasing their fitness. Once this is achieved, a distinct phenotype, or form, of organism exists.

How exactly steps such as cell-to-cell adhesion or communication were achieved in plants, animals, fungi, and algae differs among the major eukaryotic clades, yet an important aspect is that these multicellular organisms all went through a similar series of steps on their way to becoming multicellular, functional organisms.

As Niklas puts it: "This convergent evolution is well summarized by the saying 'There are many roads to Rome, but Rome is not what it used to be'."

In fact, these stages can be mapped on to theoretically possible body plans, illustrating the most plausible series of evolutionary stepsunicellular to colonial to multicellularthat is seen in algae, land plants, and animals. Niklas also posits a plausible alternate evolutionary route, starting with a single cell containing multiple nuclei (e.g., from a siphonous to multicellular form) and finds support for this in the observed forms of some fungi and algae.

"This review of the literature has now brought my attention to 'cooperation'" concludes Niklas, "because multicellularity requires cells to work together. Cheating cells cannot be tolerated over the long run because like a cancer they can gain the upper hand and kill a multicellular organism."


'/>"/>

Contact: Richard Hund
rhund@botany.org
314-577-9557
American Journal of Botany
Source:Eurekalert  

Page: 1 2 3

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
From one cell to many:  How did multicellularity evolve?
(Date:12/10/2014)... , Dec. 9, 2014  Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center ... for its School of Medicine. Funding for this $50 ... campaign that will be publicly launched next summer. ... in the former 60 series R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company ... Construction will begin immediately with plans to be ready ...
(Date:12/10/2014)... --Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/xclcvw/biometrics_market ) ... Market in Japan 2014-2018" report to their ... The integration of biometrics and smart ... upgradation of the driver,s license is one of ... the aforementioned projects, biometrics is being used as ...
(Date:12/5/2014)... , Dec. 4, 2014 Increased ... boosted investments in new testing and inspection technologies. ... given rise to a range of innovative test ... requirements of Generation Y, which is generally more ... a result, product development strategies of test equipment ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Wake Forest Baptist to Build New Medical Education Facility In Wake Forest Innovation Quarter 2Wake Forest Baptist to Build New Medical Education Facility In Wake Forest Innovation Quarter 3Wake Forest Baptist to Build New Medical Education Facility In Wake Forest Innovation Quarter 4Biometrics Market in Japan 2014-2018: Key Vendors are DDS, Fujitsu, Hitachi and NEC 2Emerging Technologies Enable Smarter Monitoring of Assets, Push Industrial Testing, Inspection and Monitoring Market 2Emerging Technologies Enable Smarter Monitoring of Assets, Push Industrial Testing, Inspection and Monitoring Market 3Emerging Technologies Enable Smarter Monitoring of Assets, Push Industrial Testing, Inspection and Monitoring Market 4
... Boulder, Colorado, USA - Geology doesn,t stop at borders. ... plate and face similar environmental and resource problems. In ... the three countries, the Center of Geoscience and the ... Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico; UNAM) are hosting ...
... Cerebral edemas are accumulations of fluid into the ... can result from several factors such as stroke or ... serious problem in neurology. While in other organs swelling ... brain it leads to coma and death. Although there ...
... the sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet outlet glaciers to rising ... bathymetry beneath them before accurate predictions of sea-level rise can ... body of sand on Earth, large enough to cover the ... of the oldest evidence of animals burrowing in search of ...
Cached Biology News:Geological Society of America Cordilleran section meets in the heart of Mexico 2Geological Society of America Cordilleran section meets in the heart of Mexico 3Geological Society of America Cordilleran section meets in the heart of Mexico 4Step forward in research into new treatments for brain edema 2Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 2Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 3Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 4Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 5Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 6Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 7Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 8Melting glaciers, enough sand to bury London, and ancient ecosystem engineering 9
(Date:12/24/2014)... 23, 2014 China Biologic Products, Inc. ... leading fully integrated plasma-based biopharmaceutical company in ... majority-owned subsidiary, Shandong Taibang Biological Products Co. Ltd., ... the China Food and Drug Administration (the "CFDA") ... previously disclosed in the Company,s public filings, the ...
(Date:12/24/2014)... Fla. , Dec. 23, 2014  Rock Creek ... that it has filed a Clinical Trial Application (CTA) ... Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) seeking regulatory approval to ... lead molecule, Anatabine Citrate. Contingent on the ... conduct a Phase I trial to assess the safety, ...
(Date:12/22/2014)... 22, 2014 /PRNewswire/ - RepliCel Life Sciences Inc. (OTCQB: ... focused on the development of autologous cell therapies, announced ... University of Calgary in conjunction with co-authors from Kyoto ... validates the company,s ongoing clinical research using dermal sheath ... baldness. The paper entitled " Hair Follicle ...
(Date:12/22/2014)... The American Journal of ... research, reviews and editorials addressing developments and pathways ... published a provocative article exploring the role of ... potential treatment of prostate cancer. , The ... the possibility that there could be a connection ...
Breaking Biology Technology:China Biologic Receives GMP Certification for New Coagulation Factor Facility 2China Biologic Receives GMP Certification for New Coagulation Factor Facility 3Rock Creek Pharmaceuticals Files Clinical Trial Application in the UK for Clinical Trials of Anatabine Citrate Formulations 2Rock Creek Pharmaceuticals Files Clinical Trial Application in the UK for Clinical Trials of Anatabine Citrate Formulations 3Newly Released Peer-Reviewed Publication Further Validates RepliCel's Use of Dermal Sheath Cup Cells to Treat Pattern Baldness 2Newly Released Peer-Reviewed Publication Further Validates RepliCel's Use of Dermal Sheath Cup Cells to Treat Pattern Baldness 3Newly Released Peer-Reviewed Publication Further Validates RepliCel's Use of Dermal Sheath Cup Cells to Treat Pattern Baldness 4Newly Released Peer-Reviewed Publication Further Validates RepliCel's Use of Dermal Sheath Cup Cells to Treat Pattern Baldness 5Prostate Cancer Experts Dissect the Role of Follicle-stimulating Hormone in the Development, Progression and Potential Treatment of Prostate Cancer 2Prostate Cancer Experts Dissect the Role of Follicle-stimulating Hormone in the Development, Progression and Potential Treatment of Prostate Cancer 3Prostate Cancer Experts Dissect the Role of Follicle-stimulating Hormone in the Development, Progression and Potential Treatment of Prostate Cancer 4
... , , , , , , ... Type of primers , Primer anneal. temp. , Sensitivity , ... Fidelity in PCR , Tolerance , of non- , ... , of serum components , ...
... , , , , , ... High fidelity cDNA , for cloning , Amplification of ... RACE a , PTT a , ... prevention , , , Expand Re- , ...
... , , for one-step RT-PCR amplification of up to 3 , ... 732 641 100 units , Cat. No. 1 732 650 500 units , ... , , Description , , , Unique ... also includes: , , Expand ...
Cached Biology Technology:Reverse transcriptases suitable for one-step RT-PCRb 2Suggested applications for reverse transcriptases 2Expand High Fidelity PCR System 2Expand High Fidelity PCR System 3
... large numbers of samples may be carried out ... operator attention. System control and data processing ... 4900. The elegant, powerful and very easy ... Windows 98 and 2000., The supplied detector is ...
Narrow-mouth has heavy-duty rim. Approximate graduations are in durable white enamel. Extra large marking space. capacity 125 mL Special grade: student grade...
... Rabbit polyclonal to MSY2/YBOX2 ( Abpromise ... Antigen: Synthetic peptide ... acids 178-227 of human YBX2. ... is proprietary). ...
Standard Fluka For microscopy (Bact., Hist.)...
Biology Products: