Boulder, Colo., USA Geology posted ahead of print on 19 April reports on evidence of the earliest chemical footprints of mycorrhizal fungi in a 503-million-year-old soil; a complex assemblage of trace fossils, including simple trails and branching burrow systems, in Sirius Passet, Greenland; evolution of a submarine canyon along the Ebro Margin, NW Mediterranean; and the growth of sub-tropical forests in Europe 13-17 million years ago, a crucial period for ape evolution that corresponds to their appearance there.
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Large-scale liquid immiscibility at the top of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa
J.A. VanTongeren Yale University, Kline Geological Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA and E.A. Mathez. Posted online 19 April 2012; doi: 10.1130/G32980.1.
The Bushveld Complex layered intrusion is one of only a handful of exhumed fossil mafic magma chambers on Earth, and it is vital for understanding of magma evolution and differentiation prior to eruption. Scientists have long argued over whether these magma chambers evolve to produce Fe-rich or Si-rich magmas near the end of their crystallization
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