Navigation Links
Four, three, two, one . . . pterosaurs have lift off
Date:1/6/2009

lking about the big pterosaurs; as the size gets bigger, the difference gets bigger too."

For example, the wings of these fantastic hairy reptiles, most notably those of Quetzalcoatlus northropi, which spanned to an impressive 35 feet when the creatures were aloft, propelled the creatures into the air during take-offs that Habib describes as leap-frogging long-jumps: "Pterosaurs had long, huge front limbs, so no partner was required. Then, with wings snapping out, off they'd fly."

Using computer scans to obtain cross-sectional images and geometric data for 155 bird specimens representing 20 species, Habib calculated the strengths of bones in bird limbs and compared these to three species of pterosaurs, the bones strengths of which he calculated using measurements from previously published sources. Structural strength, taking into account length and diameter, among other things, is a measure of how much force a bone can take before it fractures.

Habib also spent time crunching the numbers using the old, bipedal launch model and simply couldn't find a mathematical solution that would enable the largest of the pterosaurs using hind legs alone to launch at all.

"But using all four legs, it takes less than a second to get off of flat ground, no wind, no cliffs," he said. "This was a good thing to be able to do if you lived in the late Cretaceous period and there were hungry tyrannosaurs wandering around."

It stands to reason that a large-bodied animal needing to produce lots of power at take-off would use four legs instead of two, Habib says: "We put V8 engines in our biggest, heaviest cars, not V-4s, like the one in my Camry."

Assumption and convention rather than reason or data held sway for centuries, ever since the classical bipedal model of pterosaur take-off was first championed, he notes.


'/>"/>

Contact: Maryalice Yakutchik
myakutc1@jhmi.edu
443-287-2251
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:7/2/2015)... Research and Markets( ... "Natural Language Processing Market by Type (Rule-Based, ... & Image Recognition) - Worldwide Forecast to 2020" ... key vendors occupying the market are 3M, Apple, ... NetBase Solutions, SAS Institute Inc., Verint Systems among ...
(Date:6/30/2015)... To bolster its efforts and commitment to fighting cyber fraud, ... of two new team members. Dimitri ... Raviv will act as head of strategic alliances. These ... the most secure solutions for the enterprise market. ... a provider of security and management products, which was acquired ...
(Date:6/26/2015)... , June 26, 2015 ATL Technology, LLC, a ... with specialties in single use solutions, headquartered in ... Inc. (a California corporation with locations ... San Jose, Costa Rica ). This ... Rica with ATL Technology,s existing facility in ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Natural Language Processing Market by Type (Rule-Based, Statistical, and Hybrid), Technologies (Recognition, IVR, OCR, Pattern & Image Recognition) - Worldwide Forecast to 2020 2HYPR Corp. Expands Biometric Authentication Team with Enterprise All Stars 2HYPR Corp. Expands Biometric Authentication Team with Enterprise All Stars 3ATL Technology Announces Acquisition of MedConx, Inc. and Expanded Global Footprint 2
... drug developed at the University of California, Davis to ... of human clinical trials to evaluate its efficacy. ... inhibitor, is "a first-in-class drug which may treat a ... Bruce Hammock, who with UC Berkeley cell biologist Sarjeet ...
... PITTSBURGH, March 26 Mutations in a gene may cause ... diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) later in ... of Public Health and the German Research Center for Environmental ... measured expression levels of the gene and its variants in ...
... Ann Arbor, MI and Munich (Germany) March 26, ... solutions for the analysis of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) ... Pathology (MCTP) at the University of Michigan installed a ... (GGA) at its labs in Ann Arbor, MI. GMS ...
Cached Biology News:UC Davis bench-to-bedside research: Promising treatment in clinical trials 2UC Davis bench-to-bedside research: Promising treatment in clinical trials 3UC Davis bench-to-bedside research: Promising treatment in clinical trials 4UC Davis bench-to-bedside research: Promising treatment in clinical trials 5Changes in gene may stunt lung development in children 2MCTP bought Genomatix NextGen Sequencing analysis stations 2
(Date:7/29/2015)... 30, 2015 Sanofi, un ... ses résultats pour le premier semestre 2015. Le ... résultats. Visionner l,interview vidéo et lire ... Au sommaire de l,interview :  ... de croissance - Diabète ...
(Date:7/29/2015)... July 29, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - BioAmber Inc. (NYSE: BIOA ... Company,s Chief Financial Officer has resigned.  The Company has ... Officer who retired in December 2014, as full time ... permanent successor.     Andy Ashworth began ... ensure a smooth transition.  Andy was the Company,s CFO ...
(Date:7/29/2015)... DUBLIN , July 29, 2015 ... ) has announced the addition of the ... to their offering. The Global Biosimilars ... study of the rapidly growing biosimilars market. With ... industry striving to minimize costs, biosimilars are being ...
(Date:7/29/2015)... July 29, 2015  Pfenex Inc. (NYSE MKT: PFNX) ... will be released on Thursday, August 13, 2015, before ... Pfenex management will host a conference call to discuss ... press release outlining the financial results and business update ... Please call 1-866-376-8058 (US) or 1-412-542-4131 (international) and ...
Breaking Biology Technology:BioAmber Announces Change in Chief Financial Officer 2BioAmber Announces Change in Chief Financial Officer 3Global Biosimilars Market to 2025: Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs), Insulin, Interferons, G-CSF/ GM-CSF, Erythropoietins and Others 2Global Biosimilars Market to 2025: Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs), Insulin, Interferons, G-CSF/ GM-CSF, Erythropoietins and Others 3Pfenex To Report Second Quarter 2015 Results and Provide Business Update on Thursday, August 13, 2015 2
... on the road. Convinced that American companies are shipping too ... bus tour called Show Us the Jobs . , ... sites were among the 51 people who toured Wisconsin and ... Bush administration to promote a growing economy. , ,Make no ...
... any fan of the Wisconsin Film Festival , waiting ... is inevitably a frustrating part of the process. However, thanks ... festivals Web site, this year moviegoers will experience technological improvements ... Internet development firm IMS , the system is designed ...
... they knew about the work of the Wisconsin Legislature ... likely include God, guns and gays, alliterative shorthand for ... marriage. , ,While those issues commanded the heaviest headlines, ... the recently completed session of the Legislature. The real ...
Cached Biology Technology:Theres a surprising, and positive, side to the offshore jobs debate 2Theres a surprising, and positive, side to the offshore jobs debate 3Wisconsin Film Festival embraces new online ticket ordering system 2Wisconsin Film Festival embraces new online ticket ordering system 3Despite the three Gs, the Wisconsin Legislature had a productive session 2Despite the three Gs, the Wisconsin Legislature had a productive session 3
Rabbit polyclonal to SERHL ( Abpromise for all tested applications). entrezGeneID: 94009 SwissProtID: Q9H4I8...
... (Ser385) Immunogen: ... acid region encompassing the human, ... Accession Number: ... Quality Assurance: Routinely evaluated ...
Mouse monoclonal [YLI-90] to Ly49I (Biotin) ( Abpromise for all tested applications)....
TNR-R2...
Biology Products: