Navigation Links
Foot and mouth disease in sub-Saharan Africa moves over short distances, wild buffalo are a problem
Date:10/21/2013

New research shows that in sub-Saharan Africa the virus responsible for foot and mouth disease (FMD) moves over relatively short distances and the African buffalo are important natural reservoirs for the infection. The study, published in mBio, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, sheds light on how the type of FMD virus called SAT 2 emerged in sub-Saharan Africa and identifies patterns of spread in countries where SAT 2 is endemic.

"The data suggest that the common ancestor of all SAT 2 was in [African] buffalo. It's very clear that historically infections have moved from buffalo to cattle," says corresponding author Matthew Hall of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is devastating to livestock all over the world, but it's a particular problem in Africa, where wildlife that harbor the virus are thought to pass it on to their domesticated cousins.

FMD strikes cloven-hoofed animals, presenting as a high fever, blistering in the mouth and feet, decline in milk production in females, and weight loss. Although most animals recover over the course of months, some die of complications from the disease. In wild buffalo, the disease is very rarely symptomatic and animals can be persistently infected for a period of several years. The SAT 2 serotype of the virus is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, but it has crossed the Sahara and caused outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East between 1990 and 2012.

In the hopes they could eventually predict future outbreaks, Hall and his colleagues wanted a better picture of the diversity of SAT 2 viruses in sub-Saharan Africa and how they move around from one location to another. They used 250 genetic sequences of the VP1 section of the genome from SAT 2 isolates taken from all over sub-Saharan Africa and tracked the appearance of the various unique 'topotypes' over the region.

Hall says the patterns in which the topotypes appear in different places gives strong support to the idea that the virus is spread by infected hosts in land movements over relatively short distances. What's more, African buffalo are an important "maintenance host", meaning they maintain a reservoir of the virus that can re-infect domesticated animals after time and culling has ended an outbreak among livestock. The relationships between the 250 sequences also indicate that it's possible the original source of the SAT 2 viruses that are now found in wild and domesticated animals was African buffalo.

To Hall, these results indicate that genetic tracking of viruses has a lot of potential for making inferences about viral spread and heading off future outbreaks.

"We showed that we can demonstrate [virus movement] using genetic data. It's a tool that can be used for that kind of inference. In cases where less is known, this is a valid way of going about answering the questions," says Hall.

Going forward, Hall says he plans to apply a similar approach to studying serotype O FMD viruses in Africa, Asia, and South America to identify links between different animal populations. "It's good to know the reason it spreads," says Hall. "It could be quite a contribution to eradication or control efforts."


'/>"/>

Contact: Jim Sliwa
jsliwa@asmusa.org
202-942-9297
American Society for Microbiology
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Dartmouth scientists track radioactive iodine from Japan nuclear reactor meltdown
2. Big-mouthed babies drove the evolution of giant island snakes
3. Dartmouth researchers are learning how exercise affects the brain
4. Tufts Medical Center researchers finds marker in premies saliva predicts readiness to feed by mouth
5. Out of the mouths of primates, facial mechanics of human speech may have evolved
6. Study of zebra fish mouth formation may speak to Fraser syndrome hearing loss
7. Dartmouth research imparts momentum to mobile health
8. Science stars head to Dartmouth for the E.E. Just Symposium
9. Dartmouth research: The clocks are ticking and the climate is changing
10. Mercury releases contaminate ocean fish: Dartmouth-led effort publishes major findings
11. Dartmouth research offers new control strategies for bipolar bark beetles
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/16/2016)... --  EyeLock LLC , a market leader of iris-based ... IoT Center of Excellence in Austin, Texas ... embedded iris biometric applications. EyeLock,s iris authentication ... with unmatched biometric accuracy, making it the most proven ... platform uses video technology to deliver a fast and ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... , May 3, 2016  Neurotechnology, a ... the MegaMatcher Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) ... large-scale multi-biometric projects. MegaMatcher ABIS can process multiple ... using any combination of fingerprint, face or iris ... MegaMatcher SDK and MegaMatcher Accelerator , ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... India and LONDON ... Infosys Finacle, part of EdgeVerve Systems, a product ... and Onegini today announced a partnership to integrate ... solutions.      (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20151104/283829LOGO ... to provide their customers enhanced security to access ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... - FACIT has announced the creation of a ... Propellon Therapeutics Inc. ("Propellon" or "the Company"), to ... of first-in-class WDR5 inhibitors for the treatment of ... an exciting class of therapies, possessing the potential ... patients. Substantial advances have been achieved with the ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 Houston Methodist Willowbrook Hospital has ... Association to serve as their official health care ... Willowbrook will provide sponsorship support, athletic training services, ... coaches, volunteers, athletes and families. "We ... Association and to bring Houston Methodist quality services ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016  The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is ... treatments and faster cures for prostate cancer. Members of the Class of 2016 ... countries. Read More About the Class of 2016 PCF ... ... ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016   EpiBiome , a precision microbiome engineering ... debt financing from Silicon Valley Bank (SVB). The financing ... advance its drug development efforts, as well as purchase ... "SVB has been an incredible strategic partner to us ... bank would provide," said Dr. Aeron Tynes Hammack ...
Breaking Biology Technology: