"We looked at leaf waxes because they're tough, they survive well in the sediment," said Freeman.
The team used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to determine the relative abundances of different leaf waxes and the abundance of carbon isotopes for different leaf waxes. The data enabled them to reconstruct the types of vegetation present in the Olduvai Gorge area at very specific time intervals.
The results showed that the environment transitioned rapidly back and forth between a closed woodland and an open grassland.
To find out what caused this rapid transitioning, the researchers used statistical and mathematical models to correlate the changes they saw in the environment with other things that may have been happening at the time, including changes in the Earth's movement and changes in sea-surface temperatures.
"The orbit of the Earth around the sun slowly changes with time," said Freeman. "These changes were tied to the local climate at Olduvai Gorge through changes in the monsoon system in Africa. Slight changes in the amount of sunshine changed the intensity of atmospheric circulation and the supply of water. The rain patterns that drive the plant patterns follow this monsoon circulation. We found a correlation between changes in the environment and planetary movement."
The team also found a correlation between changes in the environment and sea-surface temperature in the tropics.
"We find complementary forcing mechanisms: one is the way Earth orbits,
|Contact: Sara LaJeunesse|