Navigation Links
Flow restrictors may reduce young children's accidental ingestion of liquid medications
Date:7/24/2013

Cincinnati, OH -- In the US, child-resistant packaging for most medications has contributed to the prevention of thousands of pediatric deaths. Nevertheless, over 500,000 calls are made to poison control centers each year after accidental ingestion of medications by young children, and the number of emergency department visits for unsupervised medication ingestions is rising. In a new study scheduled for publication in The Journal of Pediatrics, researchers studied whether adding flow restrictors to bottles can limit the amount of liquid medication a child could access even if child-resistant caps are missing or improperly closed.

Standard child-resistant packaging is designed to prevent or delay young children from opening bottles, giving caregivers reasonable time to intervene. However, in order for the packaging to work effectively, "Caregivers must correctly resecure the cap after each and every use. If the cap is not correctly resecured, children can open and drink whatever medication is in the bottle," according to Daniel S. Budnitz, MD, MPH, and colleagues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emory University, and the Georgia Poison Center.

To address a potential second line of defense, the researchers studied whether flow restrictors (adapters added to the neck of a bottle to limit the release of liquid) had any effect on the ability of children to remove test liquid, as well as how much they were able to remove in a given amount of time. 110 children, aged 3-4 years, participated in two tests. In one test, the children were given an uncapped medication bottle with a flow restrictor, and in the other test, the children received either a traditional bottle without a cap or with an incompletely-closed child-resistant cap. For each test, children were given 10 minutes to remove as much test liquid as possible.

Within 2 minutes, 96% of bottles without caps and 82% of bottles with incompletely-closed caps were emptied. In contrast, none of the uncapped bottles with flow restrictors were emptied before 6 minutes, and only 6% of children were able to empty bottles with flow restrictors within the 10-minute test period. Overall, older children were more successful than younger children at removing liquid from the flow-resistant bottles. None of the youngest children (36-41 months) were able to remove 5 mL of test liquid, the amount in a standard dose of acetaminophen for a 2- to 3-year-old child.

Manufacturers voluntarily added flow restrictors to over-the-counter infant acetaminophen in 2011. Based on their effectiveness, the authors suggest that flow restrictors could be added to other liquid medications, especially those harmful in small doses. Importantly, according to study co-author Maribeth C. Lovegrove, MPH, "Flow restrictors are designed as a secondary barrier and caregivers should not rely on flow restrictors alone; adding flow restrictors could complement the safety provided by current child-resistant packaging." Caregiver education should continue to focus on consistently locking child-resistant caps and storing medications away and out of sight of children.


'/>"/>

Contact: Becky Lindeman
journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org
513-636-7140
Elsevier Health Sciences
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Soy-based S-equol supplement reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors
2. Minimally invasive treatment for ruptured aneurysm: Safe, reduces mortality
3. ONR taps research teams to help reduce jet noise
4. Nanocrystal-coated fibers might reduce wasted energy
5. Autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell transplants can reduce diabetic amputations
6. University of Minnesota startup offers game-changing energy solutions that reduce CO2 emissions
7. Tax on salt could reduce cardiovascular disease deaths by 3 percent
8. How the ecological risks of extended bioenergy production can be reduced
9. Laparoscopy reduces the risk of small-bowel obstruction
10. Researchers show prebiotic can reduce severity of colitis
11. CUNY Energy Institute battery system could reduce buildings electric bills
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/30/2017)... Trends, opportunities and forecast in this market ... (fingerprint, AFIS, iris recognition, facial recognition, hand geometry, vein ... use industry (government and law enforcement, commercial and retail, ... others), and by region ( North America ... Pacific , and the Rest of the World) ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... CENTRE, N.Y. , March 27, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ ... Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Analytics ... Outpatient EMR Adoption Model sm . In addition, ... 12% of U.S. hospitals using an electronic medical ... CHS for its high level of EMR usage ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... , March 23, 2017 The report "Gesture Recognition ... Biometric), Industry, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the ... a CAGR of 29.63% between 2017 and 2022. ... ... ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... October 10, 2017 , ... Dr. Bob Harman, founder and CEO of ... Rotary Club. The event entitled “Stem Cells and Their Regenerative Powers,” ... Dr. Harman, DVM, MPVM was joined by two human doctors: Peter B. Hanson, ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... CRUZ, Calif. , Oct. 10, 2017 ... grant from the NIH to develop RealSeq®-SC (Single Cell), ... kit for profiling small RNAs (including microRNAs) from single ... Analysis Program highlights the need to accelerate development of ... "New techniques for measuring ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... October 10, 2017 , ... The Pittcon Program Committee ... honoring scientists who have made outstanding contributions to analytical chemistry and applied ... the world’s leading conference and exposition for laboratory science, which will be held ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... October 09, 2017 , ... The award-winning American Farmer ... first quarter 2018. American Farmer airs Tuesdays at 8:30aET on RFD-TV. , With ... with the challenge of how to continue to feed a growing nation. At the ...
Breaking Biology Technology: