Navigation Links
Fish fend off invading germs with an initial response similar to the one found in people
Date:9/23/2009

Since the human response to infection is highly complex, research to understand how people fight infection is facilitated by studying how similar processes occur in simpler organisms. Zebrafish are becoming an important model for human disease, since they are easily handled, maintained and manipulated and many fundamental processes between zebrafish and humans are conserved. In addition, the small zebrafish embryo is highly amenable to drug screening assays. The functional similarity between the initial responses of zebrafish embryo and humans to infection suggests that the zebrafish embryo may be a valuable model for understanding early immune responses and identifying potential therapeutics for infection or immune mediated disease. However, the initial response of zebrafish to infection and how it compares to the human response is not well understood.

When humans first encounter germs, like viruses or bacteria, the first stage of a two-part inflammatory response is triggered, which is termed the innate immune response. During this early phase, proteins are made around the site of infection to initiate the body's defense system and to recruit circulating immune cells, which begins the inflammatory process. A family of proteins that are critical to instigating the immune response are the interferons (IFN), particularly IFN-γ.

Scientists now report that IFN-γ is also produced in zebrafish embryos when they are exposed to bacteria that cause disease in fish. These studies use developing zebrafish embryos whose response to infection is isolated to the innate immune response. Since the zebrafish embryo only demonstrates innate immunity, it allows for specific study of the effects of IFN-γ on these early events. This study demonstrates that both zebrafish and human IFN-γ proteins function in much the same way, despite having very distinct protein structures. In both zebrafish and humans, IFN-γ triggers the production of an array of proteins that rally the defense mechanisms of the infected cell and activate the immune system. They also found that compromising the ability of the zebrafish embryos to produce IFN-γ impairs the fish's ability to survive infection. Thus, the zebrafish embryo may provide a very simple model to understand the innate immune response.

Interestingly, large quantities of bacteria, which would cause septic shock -- a potentially fatal condition -- in humans, do not elicit the same response in zebrafish. This suggests that some key differences between the immune systems of zebrafish and humans may also provide insight into harmful events associated with inflammation.

The characterization of IFN-γ function in zebrafish is presented in the Research Article titled 'The role of gamma interferon in innate inity in the zebrafish embryo', which was written by Dirk Sieger, Cornelia, David Neifer and Maria Leptin at the University of Cologne in Germany and Astrid van der Sar at the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam in The Netherlands. The study is published in the November/December 2009 issue of the new research journal, Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM), http://dmm.biologists.org/, published by The Company of Biologists, a non-profit based in Cambridge, UK.


'/>"/>

Contact: Kristy Kain
kristy.kain@vanderbilt.edu
615-343-1298
The Company of Biologists
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Plant protein doorkeepers block invading microbes, study finds
2. Plant protein doorkeepers block invading microbes, study finds
3. Dog owners more likely to share germs with pets by not washing hands than by sleeping with dog
4. Gutsy germs succumb to baby broccoli
5. Carnegie Mellon scientists investigate initial molecular mechanism that triggers neuronal firing
6. Catcher Holdings Inc. Lands Contract for Initial Deployments at Nine Homeland Security and State Government Agencies
7. Efavirenz-based initial therapies associated with better outcomes in HIV-infected adults
8. Genetic testing not cost-effective in guiding initial dosing of common blood thinner
9. International Serious Adverse Events Consortium announces initial study results in its global research collaboration to identify genetic markers related to drug induced liver injury
10. Funxional successfully completes initial clinical trial of FX125L, an anti-inflammatory drug with a novel mechanism of action
11. Faster, cheaper way to find disease genes in human genome passes initial test
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/3/2016)... 2016  Neurotechnology, a provider of high-precision biometric ... Biometric Identification System (ABIS) , a complete system ... ABIS can process multiple complex biometric transactions with ... fingerprint, face or iris biometrics. It leverages the ... MegaMatcher Accelerator , which have been used ...
(Date:4/19/2016)... -- The new GEZE SecuLogic access control ... system solution for all door components. It can be ... interface with integration authorization management system, and thus fulfills ... dimensions of the access control and the optimum integration ... considerable freedom of design with regard to the doors. ...
(Date:3/31/2016)... 2016   LegacyXChange, ... "Company") LegacyXChange is excited to release its ... to be launched online site for trading 100% guaranteed ... will also provide potential shareholders a sense of the ... an industry that is notorious for fraud. The video ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Mosio, a leader in clinical ... Patient Recruitment and Retention Tips.” Partnering with experienced clinical research professionals, Mosio revisits ... tips, tools, and strategies for clinical researchers. , “The landscape of how patients ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016   Boston Biomedical , an industry ... to target cancer stemness pathways, announced that its ... Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug ... including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Napabucasin is an ... cancer stemness pathways by targeting STAT3, and is ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016 A person commits a crime, ... scene to track the criminal down. An outbreak ... and Drug Administration (FDA) uses DNA evidence to track down ... Sound far-fetched? It,s not. The FDA has increasingly used ... investigations of foodborne illnesses. Put as simply as possible, whole ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... (Yeast and Mold) microbial test has received AOAC Research Institute approval 061601. , ... tests introduced last year,” stated Bob Salter, Vice President of Regulatory and Industrial ...
Breaking Biology Technology: