Navigation Links
Fighting melanoma's attraction to the brain
Date:9/19/2012

The process of metastasis, by which cancer cells travel from a tumor site and proliferate at other sites in the body, is a serious threat to cancer patients. According to the National Cancer Institute, most recurrences of cancer are metastases rather than "new" cancers.

Virtually all types of cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the brain. Once metastatic melanoma cells are entrenched in the brain, patients typically have only a few months to live.

Now Prof. Isaac Witz and his team at Tel Aviv University's Department of Cell Research and Immunology are delving deeper into what attracts metastatic melanoma cells to the brain, and how they survive and prosper in this environment. Their experiments have discovered that melanoma cells produce receptors for two chemokines a family of small proteins secreted by cells present in the brain tissue. These receptors may act as a homing device, drawing the cancerous cells to the brain.

"These interactions between the chemokines in the brain and the melanoma cell receptors could be potential targets for new therapies," Prof. Witz says. "With medications that suppress these molecules, you could hope to interfere with this specific migration." Published in the International Journal of Cancer, this research is supported by the Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation.

A dangerous attraction

Although metastasis is a well-understood process, researchers are still trying to uncover the underlying mechanisms of why cancer cells begin to migrate in the first place. It is also crucial to understand what allows them to sustain themselves, divide, and propagate once they have arrived at their new location.

To better understand metastacized melanoma cells in the brain, the researchers cultured brain tissue in the lab, then analyzed all of the materials that were expressed by the cells. They identified certain chemokine receptors in brain-metastasizing melanoma cells and corresponding chemokines in the brain tissue which could ultimately be responsible for the cancer cells' being "attracted" to the brain. If a certain chemokine is released from the brain, and the melanoma cells have the appropriate receptors, a chemical attraction will take place where the melanoma cells would be drawn to wherever the chemokine is.

Duplicating nature

The researchers have also developed a method to compare metastatic and non-metastatic cells with identical genetic backgrounds. Though they are derived from the same cancer, some of these cells become metastatic, while others do not. "This is a good way for us to concentrate on the genes that are specific to metastatic cells. Because we have these two types of cellular variants, where only one goes to the brain and metastasizes, it's an important tool" for future research, explains Prof. Witz.

The researchers have found that mice that are inoculated with non-metastatic cells do end up with melanoma cells in the brain, but they are dormant and do not generate overt metastasis. The key is to discover why these originally identical cells differ why the non-metastatic cells don't develop in the same way.

Understanding the process will help scientists to "duplicate what nature does, and prevent these cells from becoming metastatic," says Prof. Witz. "If there already is metastasis, it is too late so what we want to do is to prevent development by understanding the mechanism that keeps the non-metastatic cells dormant."


'/>"/>

Contact: George Hunka
ghunka@aftau.org
212-742-9070
American Friends of Tel Aviv University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Preventing home invasions means fighting side-by-side for coral-dwelling crabs and shrimp
2. Study finds cancer-fighting goodness in cholesterol
3. Trial launched into curry chemicals cancer-fighting properties
4. Canadian girl, 16, invents disease-fighting, anti-aging compound using tree particles
5. Fighting bacterias strength in numbers
6. UGA study reveals flu-fighting role for well-known immune component
7. La Jolla institute identifies critical cell in fighting E. coli infection
8. Method to prevent rejection of disease-fighting proteins described in Human Gene Therapy journal
9. Nematodes with pest-fighting potential identified
10. Research finds novel airborne germ-killing oral spray effective in fighting colds and flu
11. REST is crucial for the timing of brain development
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Fighting melanoma's attraction to the brain
(Date:6/3/2016)... June 3, 2016 ... Nepal hat ein ... hochsicherer geprägter Kennzeichen, einschließlich Personalisierung, Registrierung und ... der Produktion und Implementierung von Identitätsmanagementlösungen. Zahlreiche ... im Januar teilgenommen, aber Decatur wurde als ...
(Date:6/2/2016)... 2016 Perimeter Surveillance & Detection ... Physical Infrastructure, Support & Other Service  The ... offers comprehensive analysis of the global Border Security ... revenues of $17.98 billion in 2016. Now: ... leader in software and hardware technologies for advanced video ...
(Date:5/20/2016)... 2016  VoiceIt is excited to announce its ... By working together, VoiceIt and VoicePass will ... VoicePass take slightly different approaches to voice biometrics, ... and usability. ... partnership. "This marketing and technology partnership ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... quality, regulatory and technical consulting, provides a free webinar on Performing ... July 13, 2016 at 12pm CT at no charge. , Incomplete investigations are ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN ) today announced a ... sciences incubator to accelerate the development of new therapies ... QB3@953 was created to help high-potential life science and ... stage organizations - access to laboratory infrastructure. ... "Amgen Golden Ticket" awards, providing each winner with one ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... June 22, 2016 Cell Applications, Inc. ... them to produce up to one billion human ... within one week. These high-quality, consistent stem cells ... cells and spend more time doing meaningful, relevant ... proprietary, high-volume manufacturing process that produces affordable, reliable ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... YORK , June 22, 2016  According ... growing next generation sequencing (NGS) market include significant ... of smaller sequencers.  More accessible and affordable sequencers, ... to growing demand for consumables including sample prep ... The Market for Sample Preparation for Next Generation ...
Breaking Biology Technology: