To reach this level of automated diagnostic dexterity, the researchers plan to build upon "enzyme logic" breakthroughs recently demonstrated by Evgeny Katz, a Co-PI on the grant and the Milton Kerker Chaired professor of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science at Clarkson University.
Katz and colleagues demonstrated recently that enzymes can not only measure biomarkers, but also provide the logic necessary to make a limited set of diagnoses based on multiple biological variables.
One of the many challenges now facing Wang and his team, however, is to get the enzyme logic system to reliably work on sensing electrodes that humans can wear. Thus far, enzyme logic operations have only been demonstrated in solution.
From Biomarkers to 1s and 0s and Treatment
Lactate, oxygen, norepinephrine and glucose are examples as the kinds of injury biomarkers that will serve as biological input signals for their prototype logic system. Electrodes containing a combination of enzymes will serve as sensors and provide the logic necessary to convert the biomarkers to products which may then be picked up by another enzyme on the electrode for further logic operations. The electrodes will also act as transducers that produce strings of 1s and 0s that will activate smart materials that release medication based on predetermined treatment plans.
"We just want the ones and zeros. The pattern of ones and zeros will reveal the type of injury and automatically trigger the proper treatment," said Wang.
For example, if an injured soldier were to enter a state of shock, enzymes on the electrode would sense rising levels of the biomarkers lactate, glucose and norepinephrine. In turn, the concentrations of products generated by the enzymes would changehigher hydrogen peroxide, lower norepi-quinone, higher NADH and lower NAD+. This will cause
|Contact: Daniel Kane|
University of California - San Diego