Navigation Links
Eye cells believed to be retinal stem cells are misidentified
Date:3/30/2009

Cells isolated from the eye that many scientists believed were retinal stem cells are, in fact, normal adult cells, investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have found. If retinal stem cells could be obtained, they might provide the basis for treatments to restore sight to millions of people with blindness caused by retinal degeneration. Stem cells are immature cells capable of producing large numbers of adult cells, such as retinal cells. Researchers believe that stem cells offer the promise of regenerating tissue in organs such as the eye, brain and heart, damaged by trauma or disease.

The new findings suggest that research on cell therapies to restore blindness should not concentrate on these eye cells previously believed to be retinal stem cells. More promising, the scientists said, is research aimed at re-engineering stem cells to develop into the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that are lost as a result of retinal degeneration. Such studies could lead to implantation of such engineered photoreceptor cells into the eye to restore sight.

Led by Michael Dyer, Ph.D., the researchers published their findings March 30, 2009, in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Dyer is a member of the St. Jude Department of Developmental Neurobiology.

In studies reported in 2000, scientists proposed that the layer of ciliary epithelial cells lining the inside of the eye, contains retinal stem cells because when grown in culture dishes these cells formed tiny spheres of about a thousand cells, said Dyer, the paper's senior author. These spheres, in turn, could be cultured to give rise to more spheres, reminiscent of the self-renewing capability of stem cells. Also, the cultured sphere cells showed activation of genes characteristic of adult eye cells.

"The first clue that these cells were not stem cells was that they were pigmented," Dyer said. "Neural stem cells, in general, and retinal progenitor cells, in particular, are not pigmented. Nevertheless, the previous finding was met with a tremendous amount of enthusiasm because of the promise of introducing these cells into the eye to regenerate photoreceptors lost to blindness."

In their studies, Dyer and his colleagues analyzed the sphere-forming cells in detail to determine whether they were really retinal stem cells. Painstaking microscopy studies of each cell in the spheres revealed all were pigmented and had features of ciliary epithelial cells. The researchers also compared the structure of the sphere-forming cells with those of confirmed stem cells and other immature cells in the developing retina called progenitor cells. That comparison revealed fundamental differences between the sphere-forming cells and established stem or progenitor cells.

The researchers also found that simply culturing the sphere-forming cells in the same growth medium as is used for stem cells caused them to activate genes characteristic of stem cells, yet remain adult ciliary epithelial cells.

Dyer said that a particularly promising alternative is the possibility of taking samples of adult cellssuch as fibroblasts that form connective tissuefrom a patient with retinal degeneration and exposing them to genetic cues that induce them to revert to stem cells. Those induced pluripotent stem cells could then be manipulated to develop into light-sensing photoreceptor cells that could then be transplanted into the patient's eyes to restore vision.

"This approach would solve many problems of developing cell-based therapy for blindness," Dyer said. "First, these cells are immortal, so they can be grown indefinitely to produce large amounts of cells for treatment. And secondly, they would be immunologically matched to the patient, so there would be no danger of rejection. And thanks to some excellent research during the past 15 years, we know a lot about how to reprogram such stem cells to make them into photoreceptors."


'/>"/>

Contact: Summer Freeman
summer.freeman@stjude.org
901-595-3061
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Stem cell breakthrough: Monitoring the on switch that turns stem cells into muscle
2. Mayo Clinic researchers discover and manipulate molecular interplay that moves cancer cells
3. Scripps scientists find structure of a protein that makes cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy
4. HIV-1 protease inhibitor induced oxidative stress in pancreatic B-cells: thymoquinone protection
5. Human adult testes cells can become embryonic-like
6. Lab-on-a-chip homes in on how cancer cells break free
7. A sticky business -- how cancer cells become more gloopy as they die
8. Researchers identify new way the malaria parasite and red blood cells interact
9. Twin nanoparticle shown effective at targeting, killing breast cancer cells
10. Seeing stem cells helps in fight against peripheral arterial disease
11. Stem cells replace stroke-damaged tissue in rats
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/15/2016)... , March 15, 2016 ... report published by Transparency Market Research "Digital Door Lock Systems ... Forecast 2015 - 2023," the global digital door lock systems ... Mn in 2014 and is forecast to grow at a ... of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) across the world ...
(Date:3/11/2016)... HANOVER, Germany , March 11, 2016 ... - Cross reference: Picture is available at AP Images ( ... scanner from DERMALOG will be used to produce the new refugee ... of other biometric innovations, at CeBIT in Hanover ... LF10 scanner from DERMALOG will be used to produce the new ...
(Date:3/9/2016)... -- This BCC Research report provides an overview of ... (RNA Seq) market for the years 2015, 2016 and ... data analysis, and services. Use this report ... such as RNA-Sequencing tools and reagents, RNA-Sequencing data analysis, ... segment and forecast their market growth, future trends and ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/4/2016)... , ... May 04, 2016 , ... ... no further than LaJollaCooks4u, San Diego’s premiere hands-on cooking experience. Offering everything from ... give mom an experience she won’t forget. , Guests that visit LaJollaCooks4u share ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... May 4, 2016  Bayer today announced that ... Stivarga ® (regorafenib) tablets for the treatment ... met its primary endpoint of a statistically significant ... evaluated the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in ... treatment with sorafenib. The safety and tolerability were ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... May 4, 2016 According to ... "Metabolomics Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, ... is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of 17.1% ... by 2024. Metabolomics is the extensive study ... biofluids, tissues or organisms. Together, these small molecules and ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... Nutrafol®, a first-to-market ... treat hormonal and stress related hair loss. With patent-pending formulas for both female ... opinion leaders in the medical and salon channels nationwide. , Dermatologists, Plastic ...
Breaking Biology Technology: