The Earth's interior is literally inaccessible and today it is easier to reach Mars than to visit even the base of the Earth's thin crust. Scientists can however reproduce the extreme pressure and temperature of a planet's interior in the laboratory, using diamond anvil cells to squeeze a material and once under pressure, heat it with short, intense laser pulses. However, these samples are not bigger than the size of a speck of dust and remain stable under high temperatures only for very short time, measured in microseconds.
Thanks to new technologies employed at ID24, scientists can now study what happens at extreme conditions, for example when materials undergo a fast chemical reaction or at what temperature a mineral will melt in the interior of a planet. Germanium micro strip detectors enable measurements to be made sequentially and very rapidly (a million in one second) in order not to miss any detail. A stable, microscopic X-ray beam means they can also be made in two dimensions by scanning across a sample to obtain a map instead of a measurement only at a single point. A powerful infrared spectrometer complements the X-ray detectors for the study of chemical reactions under industrial processing conditions.
Today, geologists want to know whether a chemical reaction exists between the Earth's mostly liquid core and the rocky mantle surrounding it. They would like to know the melting temperature of materials other than iron that might be present in the Earth's core in order to make better models for how the core -- which produces the Earth's magnetic field -- works and to understand why the magnetic field changes over time and periodically in Earth's history, has disappeared and reversed.
We know even less about warm dense matter believed to exist in the core of larger planets, for example Jupiter, which should be even hotter and denser. It can be produced in the laboratory using extremely powerful las
|Contact: Claus Habfast|
European Synchrotron Radiation Facility