Park Ridge, Ill. (August 12, 2009) Research published online in the journal Epidemiology found that higher levels of total blood choline are associated with a 2.5-fold reduction in risk for neural tube birth defects (NTDs).(1) NTDs are birth defects of the brain and spinal cord, and the two most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), an estimated 3,000 pregnancies in the U.S. are affected by NTDs each year.(2,3) This study adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the important role of choline in fetal development.
The Epidemiology study investigated blood samples from more than 180,000 pregnant women and found 80 cases of NTDs. Researchers compared the blood samples to samples from 409 controls without birth defects and examined the specimens for markers including choline, folate, homocysteine, methionine and betaine among others. The researchers observed:
In the research discussion, the investigators note that the cause of NTDs is very complex and that supplementation of the food supply with folic acid, though effective, is only part of the solution. "This study is exciting because it offers new clues for preventing serious birth defects like spina bifida," said Dr. Gary M. Shaw, co-author of the study and professor of pediatrics at Stanford University School of Medicine. "This research should be repeated in other settings so we can learn more about the best nutrition advice to give pregnant women."
The Benefits of Choline
Choline is an essential nutrient needed for many of life's most basic functions including brain and nerve function, liver metabolism, the transportation of nutrients and the normal functioning of every cell in the body. Adequate choline intake is especially important for pregnant and breastfeeding women because it has been shown to influence prenatal and infant brain and spinal cord development as well as lifelong memory and learning functions. There is a high rate of choline transfer from mother to fetus and breast milk is also rich in choline, so meeting maternal choline needs is very important.
Emerging research also shows that choline may have additional benefits in areas such as:
Closing the Choline Consumption Gap
Despite its important role in the body, only one in 10 Americans is meeting the Adequate Intake (AI) guidelines for choline.(7) "Most people don't know how important choline is for their bodies, or how easy it is to get the choline you need from food," explains Elizabeth Ward, a registered dietitian in private practice and author of the new book "Expect the Best: Your Guide to Healthy Eating Before, During, & After Pregnancy." Ward, who is not affiliated with Stanford, also notes "One large egg can help meet roughly one-quarter of the recommended daily intake of choline for men, women and women who are pregnant or nursing."
For those looking to add more choline to their diet, Ward offers these additional tips:
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