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Epigenetic changes don't last
Date:9/20/2011

This release is available in German.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck would have been delighted: geneticists no longer dismiss out of hand his belief that acquired traits can be passed on to offspring. When Darwin published his book on evolution, Lamarck's theory of transformation went onto the ash heap of history. But in the last decade, we have learned that the environment can after all leave traces in the genomes of animals and plants, in form of so-called epigenetic modifications. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Developmental Biology in Germany have now produced the first comprehensive inventory of spontaneous epigenetic changes. Using Arabidopsis, the workhorse of modern plant genetics, the researchers determined how often and where in the genome epigenetic modifications occur and how often they disappear again. They found that epigenetic changes are many orders of magnitude more frequent than conventional DNA mutations, but also often short lived. They are therefore probably much less important for long-term evolution than previously thought.

The team around Detlef Weigel, director of the Department for Molecular Biology, focused on one of the most important epigenetic marks, methylation of DNA. Tiny chemical building blocks, methyl groups, are thereby attached to individual letters of the DNA, mostly to cytosines. The genetic information itself in form of the four different letters or nucleotides that make up the genetic code remains unchanged in this process. To determine the rate and distribution of methylation changes in the genome, the German biologists looked at ten Arabidopsis lines. These lines came from the same stock, but had been propagated independently for 30 generations by self-fertilization. In the genome of the last generation the scientists then searched for differences in the methylation pattern in comparison to the
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Contact: Detlef Weigel
detlef.weigel@tuebingen.mpg.de
49-707-160-11411
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Source:Eurekalert  

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