Navigation Links
Emerald ash borers were in US long before first detection
Date:5/7/2014

EAST LANSING, Mich. New research at Michigan State University shows that the uber-destructive emerald ash borer arrived at least 10 years before it was first identified in North America.

The study, published in the current issue of journal Diversity and Distributions, shows that EABs were feasting on ash trees in southeast Michigan by the early 1990s, well before this pest was discovered in 2002, said Deb McCullough, MSU professor of forest entomology.

"We suspect they arrived inside wood crating or pallets imported from Asia where the beetle is native," she said. "There were probably only a few live beetles that arrived, but ash trees are common in urban landscapes as well as in forests. When they emerged, there were likely ash trees nearby, providing food for the beetles and their offspring."

Slender cores were collected from the trunk of more than 1,000 ash trees across six counties in southeast Michigan. By studying the tree rings on each core and identifying key "marker" years, the team was able to determine the year each tree was killed by emerald ash borers. This study, which encompassed more than 5,800 square miles, is by far the largest area sampled with tree rings. In addition, this was the first study to use tree rings to track the spread of an invasive tree-feeding insect.

The scientists found ash trees were killed as early as 1997. Since it takes many years before the beetle population was large enough to kill ash trees, the team concluded that the invasive species had been in southeast Michigan since 1992 or 1993 and perhaps even earlier.

Emerald ash borers now have infested at least 22 states and two Canadian provinces and have become the most destructive and costly forest insect to ever invade North America, McCullough said.

"Emerald ash borers are killing trees so fast across such a large geographic area, that nobody actually knows how many trees are dead," she said. "We do know there are tens of millions of dead ash in lower Michigan alone."

Data from the tree ring study showed how the infestation grew and spread. Some of the spread was natural adult beetles flying from one ash tree to another. However, new "satellite" populations were started by people transporting infested ash trees from nurseries or as logs and firewood. By 2003, they had expanded beyond the six counties encompassed by the tree ring study.

Part of the problem was the difficulty of detecting new infestations, said McCullough. Ash trees have no symptoms when they are first infested. By the time a tree is declining, at least three or four generations of beetles have emerged and gone off to colonize new ash trees.

In addition, reports of declining ash trees were not uncommon in Michigan and surrounding states in the 1990s. Problems ranged from road salt to drought to changing water tables. When shiny green beetles emerged from dying ash trees, however, researchers knew it was something out of the ordinary.

Specialists at the Smithsonian Institute and London's Museum of Natural History could not identify the beetles. Eventually, an entomologist in Slovakia, who intensively studied these and similar beetles, was able to identify the specimens. Still, the species had no common name until the MSU entomologists and their colleagues came up with "emerald ash borer."

By the time Michigan identified the invader, ash trees across southeast Michigan were dead or dying, McCullough said. "We think emerald ash borers probably arrived from China, where they attack only very stressed or dying ash trees. Because of that, they are not considered an important pest in China. The Asian ash species have evolved with the beetles so healthy trees there are resistant to them. In North America, emerald ash borers would still prefer to attack stressed trees but it will do fine on healthy trees, too."


'/>"/>

Contact: Layne Cameron
layne.cameron@cabs.msu.edu
517-353-8819
Michigan State University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Stinging came before seeing
2. U of I study: Lose body weight before gaining baby weight
3. Purdue professor to speak before Congress about nanotechnology in brain treatment research
4. Physics confirms sprinters are performing better than ever before
5. Study finds mad cow disease in cattle can spread widely in ANS before detectable in CNS
6. Antibiotic use in infants before 6 months associated with being overweight in childhood
7. Human impact felt on Black Sea long before industrial era
8. A mother’s nutrition--before pregnancy--may alter the function of her children’s genes
9. Stopping flies before they mature
10. Grant funded to improve mothers nutrition before pregnancy and impact on baby
11. New method for uncovering side effects before a drug hits the market
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/2/2016)... June 2, 2016 The Department of ... awarded the 44 million US Dollar project, for the ... Plates including Personalization, Enrolment, and IT Infrastructure , ... the production and implementation of Identity Management Solutions. Numerous renowned ... Decatur was selected for the most ...
(Date:6/1/2016)... NEW YORK , June 1, 2016 ... Biometric Technology in Election Administration and Criminal Identification to ... According to a recently released TechSci Research report, " ... Sector, By Region, Competition Forecast and Opportunities, 2011 - ... $ 24.8 billion by 2021, on account of growing ...
(Date:5/16/2016)... NEW YORK , May 16, 2016   ... authentication solutions, today announced the opening of an IoT ... to strengthen and expand the development of embedded ... provides an unprecedented level of convenience and security with ... to authenticate one,s identity aside from DNA. EyeLock,s platform ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... While the majority of commercial spectrophotometers and ... and the 6000i models are higher end machines that use the more unconventional z-dimension ... light beam from the bottom of the cuvette holder. , FireflySci has developed ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... release of its second eBook, “Clinical Trials Patient Recruitment and Retention Tips.” Partnering ... retention in this eBook by providing practical tips, tools, and strategies for clinical ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016   Boston Biomedical , an ... designed to target cancer stemness pathways, announced that ... Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and ... cancer, including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Napabucasin is ... inhibit cancer stemness pathways by targeting STAT3, and ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- A person commits a crime, and the detective uses ... criminal down. An outbreak of foodborne illness makes ... uses DNA evidence to track down the bacteria that caused ... not. The FDA has increasingly used a complex, cutting-edge technology ... Put as simply as possible, whole genome sequencing is a ...
Breaking Biology Technology: