nhospitable terrain, but with modern marine seismology acquisition and processing methods, Earth processes can be visualized with unprecedented fidelity, resolving features on the order of tens of meters. In their study published online for Geology on 9 June 2014, A.F. Arnulf and colleagues applied innovative methods to image the thickest magma reservoir observed, to date, beneath any ocean spreading center. Their results for Axial Volcano, a submarine volcano offshore of the Pacific Northwest, reveal a complex melt body beneath the summit caldera that is approx. 14 km long, 3 km wide, and up to 1 km thick. This 18- to 30-cubic-kilometer magma reservoir is comparable in size and volume with a famous California landmark: the Yosemite Valley. Previous studies imaged upper crustal melt lenses that are ~50-100 m thick and 1-2 km wide, which lie above a partially molten lower crust where magma cools and crystallizes to form the gabbroic lower crust. The larger magma chamber, greater size, and activity of Axial Volcano arise from the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge with the Cobb hotspot chain.
Great tsunamigenic earthquakes during the past 1000 yr on the Alaska megathrust
Ian Shennan et al., Sea Level Research Unit, Dept. of Geography, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. Published online 9 June 2014; http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G35797.1.
This paper by Ian Shennan and colleagues uses evidence from sediments preserved in coastal marshes from the Kodiak archipelago, the fossils contained within the sediments, and radiocarbon dating to demonstrate that rupture patterns along the Alaska megathrust in the last few centuries differ to those observed during the 20th century. They have a much shorter recurrence interval than those used in current seismic hazard assessment maps. Shennan and colleagues combine new observations with previous geological, historical, and Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Related biology news :1
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