Navigation Links
Discovery may help prevent chemotherapy-induced anemia

May 5, 2013 (Bronx, NY) Cancer chemotherapy can cause peripheral neuropathynerve damage often resulting in pain and muscle weakness in the arms and legs. Now, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have discovered that chemo also induces an insidious type of nerve damage inside bone marrow that can cause delays in recovery after bone marrow transplantation. The findings, made in mice and published online today in Nature Medicine, suggest that combining chemotherapy with nerve-protecting agents may prevent long-term bone marrow injury that causes anemia and may improve the success of bone marrow transplants.

Constantly regenerating and maturing, the hematopoietic (blood-producing) stem cells in our bone marrow produce billions of red blood cells (RBC) every day. Cancer chemotherapy is notorious for injuring the bone marrow, leading to anemia, or low RBC counts. But just how chemotherapy harms the bone marrow has not been clear.

Anemia can lead to numerous health problems including chronic fatigue, tachycardia (abnormally rapid heartbeat), cognitive impairment, shortness of breath, depression and dizziness. In addition, studies have shown that cancer patients who develop anemia have a 65 percent increased risk of death compared with cancer patients without anemia.

In an earlier study, senior author Paul Frenette, M.D., professor of medicine and of cell biology and director of the Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research at Einstein, found that sympathetic nerves within bone marrow direct the movement of hematopoietic stem cells. (The body's sympathetic nervous system helps in controlling most internal organsincreasing heart rate and dilating the pupils of the eye, for example.)

"Since many chemotherapies used in cancer treatment are neurotoxic, we wondered whether they might also damage sympathetic nerves in bone marrow itself, impairing the ability of hematopoietic cells to regenerate and to manufacture RBCs," said Dr. Frenette. "This possibility hadn't been examined before."

Dr. Frenette and his colleagues treated mice with seven cycles of cisplatin, a common chemotherapy drug with known neurotoxic effects. The cisplatin caused peripheral neuropathy problems similar to those seen in cancer patients. The mice were then given fresh bone marrow transplants to see how well their marrow would regenerate. Despite receiving fresh stem cells, the cisplatin-treated mice had delayed recovery of blood counts compared to controlssuggesting that the prior cisplatin treatments had affected the bone marrow and prevented hematopoietic stem cells from regenerating. By contrast, mice treated with carboplatina non-neurotoxic chemotherapyrecovered their ability to produce blood after bone marrow transplantation.

To confirm that healthy sympathetic nerves in the bone marrow are needed to regenerate hematopoietic stem cells and produce RBCs, the researchers selectively damaged sympathetic nerves in bone marrow using chemicals or genetic engineering. In both cases, the mice with the damaged sympathetic nerves were less able than control mice to recover after bone marrow transplant.

The researchers found that injury to these nerves could be reduced by giving mice nerve-protecting agents along with chemotherapy. Mice treated with seven cycles of cisplatin along with 4-methylcatechol (an experimental drug that reportedly protects sympathetic nerves) showed improved response to bone marrow transplantation, compared to controls.

Dr. Frenette and his colleagues now plan to look for compounds that can protect sympathetic nerves in the bone marrow without reducing the effectiveness of cancer chemotherapies.


Contact: Kim Newman
Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Related biology news :

1. Discovery of a molecule that initiates maturation of mammalian eggs can lead to more IVF pregnancies
2. Annual Drug Discovery Conferences Being Held in Boston MA, Spring 2012
3. Discovery provides blueprint for new drugs that can inhibit hepatitis C virus
4. Unexpected discovery reveals a new mechanism for how the cerebellum extracts signal from noise
5. Discovery offers insight into treating viral stomach flu
6. Breast cancer risk gene discovery fast tracked by new technology
7. Tales from the crypt lead researchers to cancer discovery
8. New discovery may lead to effective prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host dsease
9. Stomata development in plants unraveled -- a valuable discovery for environmental research
10. Discovery reveals chromosomes organize into yarns
11. Bacteria discovery could lead to antibiotics alternatives
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/9/2015)... , Nov. 09, 2015 ... addition of the "Global Law Enforcement ... offering. --> ) has ... Law Enforcement Biometrics Market 2015-2019" report ... and Markets ( ) has announced ...
(Date:11/4/2015)... November 4, 2015 --> ... report published by Transparency Market Research "Home Security Solutions Market ... Forecast 2015 - 2022", the global home security solutions market is ... by 2022. The market is estimated to expand at ... 2015 to 2022. Rising security needs among customers at ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... , Oct. 29, 2015   MedNet Solutions , ... entire spectrum of clinical research, is pleased to announce ... Tech Association (MHTA) as one of only three finalists ... "Software – Small and Growing" category. The Tekne Awards honor ... have shown superior technology innovation and leadership. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/23/2015)... ... ... Noblis, Inc., a leading provider of science, technology, and strategy services, announced ... (NGA), has joined the Noblis NSP team as President of the organization. , ... the private sector,” said L. Roger Mason, Jr., Ph.D. , Senior VP, National ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... and PISCATAWAY, New Jersey ... Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) announces the ... Structural Database (CSD) and the CSD-System, now complemented ... worldwide: CSD-Discovery to support the discovery of new ... and CSD-Enterprise, the complete set of the CCDC,s ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... , Nov. 23, 2015  CryoLife, Inc. (NYSE: ... focused on cardiac and vascular surgery, announced today that it ... Jaffray Healthcare Conference on Wednesday, December 2, 2015 at The ... . Pat Mackin , President and Chief ... and Chief Executive Officer. --> A live ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... Nov. 23, 2015  Oxis Biotech, Inc. (OXIS), ... [OTC: OXIS] and [Euronext Paris: OXI.PA] announced today ... Cancer Center received notification from the U.S. Food ... with their planned combination Phase 1/Phase 2 clinical ... to develop and commercialize OXS-1550, a novel therapy ...
Breaking Biology Technology: