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Dendritic cells in liver protect against acetaminophen toxicity
Date:9/1/2011

NYU School of Medicine researchers have discovered that dendritic cells in the liver have a protective role against the toxicity of acetaminophen, the widely used over-the-counter pain reliever and fever reducer for adults and children. The study's findings are published in the September issue of the journal Hepatology.

The liver is the organ that plays a central role in transforming and filtering chemicals from the body. High-doses of acetaminophen can cause hepatotoxicity, chemical driven liver damage. In fact, accidental and intentional acetaminophen overdose are the most frequent causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. Acetaminophen related liver failure by intentional or accidental overdose causes 56,000 emergency room visits, 2,600 hospital visits and 450 deaths annually. As a result, this year the FDA mandated drug manufacturers to start limiting the amount of acetaminophen in combination drug products and is currently exploring adding safer dosing instructions to children's acetaminophen products.

In the new study, researchers found an abundance of dendritic cells in the liver can protect the organ from acetaminophen damage while low levels of dendritic cells in the liver are associated with exacerbated liver damage, liver cell and tissue death, known as centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and acute liver failure from acetaminophen.

"Our research results confirm a central role for dendritic cells and their powerful regulation of acetaminophen's toxicity," said George Miller, MD, senior author of study and assistant professor, Departments of Surgery and Cell Biology at NYU Langone Medical Center. "High levels of dendritic cells have a novel, critical and innate protective role in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. We now have greater insight into the liver's tolerance of acetaminophen toxicity and dendritic cell regulation of these toxins."

In the study, researchers used acetaminophen-induced hepa
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Contact: Lauren Woods
lauren.woods@nyumc.org
212-404-3555
NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine
Source:Eurekalert

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