Navigation Links
Deep genomics


The chromatin landscape

So why are we poor, forked creatures instead of tumbling beachballs of undifferentiated cells?

An embryo begins by dividing into identical cells, but within hours these cells begin to make genetic decisions, turning off some genes and turning on others. So the ball of cells acquires a front end and a back end, a top and a bottom, nerve cells and muscles cells all still carrying the same DNA, but DNA now packaged in such a way that some genes are shrink wrapped and silent but others are spreadeagled for easy access and active.

We've been taught that DNA is everything, but you could equally well say packaging is everything.

And in eukaryotes (higher organisms like plants and animals), DNA comes in a particularly elaborate package.

In human beings, nucleus of a cell, which is only a few micrometers in diameter, contains two meters of DNA! Trying to get in all that DNA in the nucleus is like packing a thread 10 kilometers long into a pea.

To keep things manageable, the DNA is wound around tiny beads of proteins called histones and these "beads on a string" are then coiled and folded, looped, and then coiled and folded again to "condense" the DNA into a chromosome.

The combination of DNA, histones and other proteins that make up chromosomes is called "chromatin."

The epigenetic code that determines whether genes are silenced or expressed consists of chemical modifications to the DNA, to "tails" that hang off the histones, or other packaging proteins.

"ENCODE and modENCODE are much more complicated projects than the Human Genome Project," Elgin says, "because the DNA sequence is pretty much the same in every cell type, whereas the chromatin structure is different in every cell type. In fact we believe it is the chromatin structure that differentiates one cell type from another.

"That means we can't just do one genome for the organism. We hav

Contact: Diana Lutz
Washington University in St. Louis

Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Related biology news :

1. Broad Institute awarded major grant to bolster epigenomics research
2. Complete Genomics launches, becomes worlds first large-scale human genome sequencing company
3. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News reports on the trend toward predictive toxicogenomics
4. Computation and genomics data drive bacterial research into new golden age
5. New gene variants present opportunities in nutrigenomics
6. Nutrigenomics -- developing personalized diets for disease prevention
7. Human genomics in China
8. Mixing genomics and geography yields insights into life and environment
9. Comparative genomics reveals molecular evolution of Q fever pathogen
10. Complete Genomics releases proof-of-concept data for its sequencing technology for the first time
11. Venter, Somerville and Church highlight DOE/JGI genomics of energy and environment meeting
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Deep genomics
(Date:10/9/2015)... , Oct. 09 2015 ... addition of the "Samsung Galaxy S6 ... report to their offering. --> ... the "Samsung Galaxy S6 Fingerprint Sensor ... their offering. --> Research and ...
(Date:10/8/2015)... , Oct. 8, 2015 Synaptics Inc. (NASDAQ: ... interface solutions, announced today that it will report ... 2016 on Thursday, October 22, 2015, after the ... corresponding conference call for analysts and investors at ... management may discuss forward-looking information.    ...
(Date:10/8/2015)... , 8. Oktober 2015 ... global tätiges Unternehmen des Bereiches Tracking, hat ... mit der Gefängnisbehörde Virginias (Department of Corrections ... elektronische Überwachungsdienste für alle Strafen geliefert werden, ... Cassell , Präsident für den Amerikanischen Kontinent ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
... CORVALLIS, Ore. The National Science Foundation has notified Oregon ... a project to finalize the design and coordinate the construction ... bolster the marine science research capabilities of the United States. ... the design phase of the project and if funds ...
... Ecology is rife with predation, competition, and other ... determine the course life on Earth. Organisms sometimes ... Stress Gradient Hypothesis, their "positive interactions" become measurably ... such as drought. Ecologists have argued about the ...
... Mass. , Jan. 30, 2013 /PRNewswire-iReach/ -- BlueMetal Architects, ... it has appointed former Microsoft Health Solutions Group Director and ... to be Vice President of Health & Life Sciences.  Mr. ... Boston office and will be responsible ...
Cached Biology News:
(Date:10/9/2015)... Oct. 9, 2015  Pulmatrix, Inc., (NASDAQ: PULM ) ... investor conferences. th Annual BIO Investor ... (2:00 pm EDT). --> th Annual ... am PDT (2:00 pm EDT). --> Pulmatrix ... Growth Stock Conference on Thursday, October 15, 2015 at 8:30 ...
(Date:10/9/2015)... Michigan (PRWEB) , ... October 09, 2015 , ... ... around us. However, the current methods of separating those cells from their surroundings ... and damaging to the cells. , To address this, Ann Arbor-based startup ...
(Date:10/9/2015)... ... October 09, 2015 , ... Leading microbial genomics startup ... to better understand the relationship between weight management and the microbiome. The study uses ... from participants using an iPhone app. , The uBiome app is available as a ...
(Date:10/8/2015)... UK (PRWEB) , ... October 08, 2015 , ... Researchers ... literally see inside the living brain, providing a new tool to study how diseases ... is reported by Woo June Choi and Ruikang Wang of the UW Department of ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
... 22 The Delaware Court of,Chancery today issued its ... a,stockholder of Cryo-Cell International Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: CCEL),challenging ... held,on July 16, 2007. The court ordered the Company ... stockholders meeting to be held on March 4, 2008,commencing ...
... FOSRENOL(R), SARATOGA SPRINGS, N.Y., Jan. 22 Palio, ... to announce that Shire,Pharmaceuticals (LSE: SHP, Nasdaq: SHPGY, TSX: ... the professional advertising and promotion for,Shire,s FOSRENOL, which is ... excited to put our team,s experience and insight to ...
... 22 A free white paper for clinical,laboratory ... from Spiral Biotech, Inc. at, ., ... clinicians,are faced with the ongoing challenge of quickly ... of pathogens. As a result, clinical laboratories,face growing ...
Cached Biology Technology:
RayBio Human Chemokine Antibody Array 1.1 (8) with Accessory, detects 38 chemokine factors (for lysate) Class: Antibody Array Products Product Group: Antibody Array...
... Freezing-point Osmometer for 30 L samples, featuring 24-position turntable. Provides up to 30 minutes of ... software for statistical analysis and record keeping. RS-232 port. ... ... ...
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl hapten is conjugated to Bovine Gamma Globulin (BGG) through lysine by amide bonds....
Adhesive seal-tab, for HybriWell™ hybridization sealing system *set of 400*...
Biology Products: