Navigation Links
Corralling the carbon cycle

Stanford, CAScientists may have overcome a major hurdle to calculating how much carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed and released by plants, vital information for understanding how the biosphere responds to stress and for determining the amount of carbon that can be safely emitted by human activities. The problem is that ecosystems simultaneously take up and release CO2. The key finding is that the compound carbonyl sulfide, which plants consume in tandem with CO2, can be used to quantify gas flow into the plants during photosynthesis. The research is published in the November 14, issue of Science.

"In photosynthesis, plants 'breath' in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and, with sunlight energy, convert it and water into food and oxygen, which they then 'exhale,'" explained co-author Joe Berry from the Carnegie Institution's Department of Global Ecology. "In ecosystems, plants and other organisms respire producing carbon dioxide. We can measure the net change in CO2, but we do not have an accurate way to measure how much is going in or out and how this is affected by climate. Understanding this photosynthesis-climate feedback riddle is key to understanding how climate change may affect the natural processes that are a sink for human-made carbon emissions."

Previous laboratory research showed that carbonyl sulfide is taken up in step with photosynthesis. But unlike CO2, there is no emission of carbonyl sulfide from plants.

The researchers compared atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide over North American during the growing season with two simulations of an atmospheric transport model. The airborne observations, from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America, also measured CO2. They combined that data with results from laboratory experiments that looked at gas exchange at the leaf level.

"We've always looked at the total change in CO2, but now we can look for the influence of photosynthesis on this total change," remarked lead author Elliott Campbell a former Carnegie postdoctoral researcher, currently at UC Merced. "Our approach, based on the relation of carbonyl sulfide to photosynthesis, gives us this unique ability."

With the new inputs, the researchers ran their simulations, which consider plant uptake, soil and ocean absorption, human-made emissions and how the gases flow through these systems. The simulations showed that the magnitude of the plant uptake was much larger than other sources and sinks at a continental scale during the growing season, which is important for using the compound to trace photosynthesis.

"The intriguing outcome of this study is that an inverse analysis of the atmospheric carbonyl sulfide measurements may be used to quantify the carbon released during plant respiration," remarked Berry. "That key missing piece has been a thorn in the side of carbon-cycle research for years."


Contact: Joe Berry
650-462-1047 x203
Carnegie Institution

Related biology news :

1. New study warns limited carbon market puts 20 percent of tropical forest at risk
2. Mice use specialized neurons to detect carbon dioxide in the air
3. Researchers find new taste in fruit flies: carbonated water
4. Studying component parts of living cells with carbon nanotube cellular probes
5. New membrane strips carbon dioxide from natural gas faster and better
6. Green alga genome project catalogs carbon capture machinery
7. Hungry microbes share out the carbon in the roots of plants
8. Decline in uptake of carbon emissions confirmed
9. Study reveals that nitrogen fertilizers deplete soil organic carbon
10. US fires release large amounts of carbon dioxide
11. Wildfire drives carbon levels in northern forests
Post Your Comments:
(Date:6/21/2016)... June 21, 2016 NuData Security announced today ... role of principal product architect and that ... of customer development. Both will report directly to ... The moves reflect NuData,s strategic growth in its ... high customer demand and customer focus values. ...
(Date:6/9/2016)... Paris Police Prefecture ... solution to ensure the safety of people and operations in ... major tournament Teleste, an international technology group specialised ... today that its video security solution will be utilised by ... public safety across the country. The system roll-out is scheduled ...
(Date:6/2/2016)... -- Perimeter Surveillance & Detection Systems, Biometrics ... Support & Other Service  The latest report ... analysis of the global Border Security market . ... $17.98 billion in 2016. Now: In November ... software and hardware technologies for advanced video surveillance. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... to announce the launch of their brand, UP4™ Probiotics, into Target stores nationwide. ... years, is proud to add Target to its list of well-respected retailers. This ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... -- Houston Methodist Willowbrook Hospital has signed a ... serve as their official health care provider. As ... provide sponsorship support, athletic training services, and most ... athletes and families. "We are excited ... to bring Houston Methodist quality services and programs ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... SAN FRANCISCO , June 23, 2016   ... it has secured $1 million in debt financing from ... to ramp up automation and to advance its drug ... for its new facility. "SVB has been ... goes beyond the services a traditional bank would provide," ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016 Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ... clinical trials of its complement C3 inhibitor, APL-2. ... multiple ascending dose studies designed to assess the ... subcutaneous injection in healthy adult volunteers. ... as a single dose (ranging from 45 to ...
Breaking Biology Technology: