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Cooperators can coexist with cheaters, as long as there is room to grow
Date:2/1/2013

cells, cooperators and cheaters, and laid them out on a grid. Cooperators were given the ability, not uncommon in nature, to make a resource that speeds up growth in both kinds of cells. Producing this resource slowed down the growth of cooperators, because they have to divert some energy to resource production. This resource then spread out from the cooperator by diffusion, so that the cells closest to a producer have the greatest resource access. The model revealed that the producers tended to cluster, meaning that being a producer gave you greater access to resources. It also meant that even though cheaters are avoiding the cost of production, they pay for it with reduced resource access.

Within these basic constraints it was found that when the two populations must compete directly for survival, no coexistence is possible. "One type always wins out," observed Borenstein. However, when the two populations can grow into empty space, the researchers found a strange and paradoxical interaction: cheaters may be outcompeting cooperators locally, even as cooperators grow better overall. These complex interactions may play an important role in the maintenance of diverse microbial communities, like those seen in the mouth.

"To our astonishment, we found that while cheaters can exploit cooperators, cooperators can isolate cheaters, just from cooperation and growth," concludes Borenstein. "As a result, the community can persist in a sort of perpetual race from which a winner need not emerge."


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Contact: Ellen R. Weiss
eweiss@biophysics.org
240-290-5606
American Institute of Physics
Source:Eurekalert

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