Navigation Links
Collisions of protein machines cause DNA replication derailment
Date:2/24/2011

Scientists have published results that will forever change the way researchers view the interplay between gene expression, DNA replication and the prevention of DNA damage.

DNA damage, if not kept in check, can lead to many problems including cancers. Researchers, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Wellcome Trust and working at The University of Nottingham, have shown that the process of replication is even riskier than originally thought. This new information is published today (24 February) in the journal Nature.

Lead researcher Panos Soultanas, a Professor of Biological Chemistry from The University of Nottingham School of Chemistry said "Consider DNA as a bi-directional rail track with two types of train: a big fast one like an eight-carriage cross country train and a small slow one like a two-carriage regional train. As it travels, the big train the DNA replisome is responsible for copying the DNA e.g. when a cell is preparing to divide. And the small train the RNA polymerase makes its journey to deal with the expression of genes contained within the DNA sequence."

Just like trains, collisions between proteins moving along a strand of DNA can be catastrophic and this is one reason why areas of DNA that are being used a lot are particularly prone to damage. Until now it was thought that only head-on collisions between the DNA replisome (the big, fast, cross country train) and the RNA polymerase (the small, slow, regional train) could lead to serious DNA damage. This research shows that collisions between big and small trains running in the same direction can be just as dangerous and hence the problem in areas of high use is exacerbated.

Professor Soultanas said "Until now we thought that if the fast and slow protein-trains meet going in the same direction along the track then the faster DNA replication train just slows down and follows along behind the slower gene expression train until it has finished its job and moved out of the way. Our new research shows that this isn't the case at all and in fact they do collide quite often causing what, in this analogy, we could only describe as a major derailment!"

When the DNA replisome falls off the DNA there are other proteins called "restart replication proteins" that come in to help get it back on track. Although this ensures that DNA replication can continue, it can potentially increase the risk of mistakes occurring during the copying process, particularly if such restart replication proteins are malfunctioning. In some cases these mistakes can lead to problems e.g. if the mistake causes a genetic malfunction that can lead to a cancer developing.

Describing what happens to the DNA replisome in areas of DNA where there are many RNA Polymerases working on genes that are in high use, Professor Soultanas said: "We are now realizing that when there are a lot of slow moving trains close together on the track, the fast moving train is faced with a huge obstacle and any failure to safely negotiate these areas could easily result in significant errors. Therefore, replication restart mechanisms are of vital importance to ensure accurate copying of the genetic material"

Professor Douglas Kell, Chief Executive, BBSRC said "This is exciting news and an excellent achievement. Biological sciences as a discipline is unique because there are a collection of key ideas, tools, techniques and processes that are applied across an enormous range of topics. The interplay between gene expression, DNA replication and the prevention of DNA damage is an example of just such a tenet of biology and so this result has the potential to touch on research right across BBSRC's portfolio and beyond."


'/>"/>

Contact: Mike Davies
mike.davies@bbsrc.ac.uk
01-793-414-694
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Researchers achieve a full film frame of a family of proteins essential for cell function
2. Simpler way of making proteins could lead to new nanomedicine agents
3. Cancer-causing virus exploits key cell-survival proteins
4. How disordered proteins spread from cell to cell, potentially spreading disease
5. Discovery of blood proteins that are red flags for ectopic pregnancy
6. 2 in 1: Multi-tasking protein provides new approaches for anti-tuberculosis drugs
7. Blood-clotting protein linked to cancer and septicemia
8. A protein reinforces memory and prevents forgetfulness
9. Pitt team grows arteries with most elastic protein reported, big step for living vascular grafts
10. Scientists link protein to the insulation of the nervous systems wiring
11. New method for rapidly producing protein-polymers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/15/2016)... , April 15, 2016 ... "Global Gait Biometrics Market 2016-2020,"  report to their ... ) , ,The global gait biometrics market ... 13.98% during the period 2016-2020. Gait ... which can be used to compute factors that ...
(Date:3/31/2016)... -- Genomics firm Nabsys has completed a financial  restructuring under ... M.D., who returned to the company in October 2015. ... including Chief Technology Officer, John Oliver , Ph.D., ... Vice President of Software and Informatics, Michael Kaiser ... Bready served as CEO of Nabsys from 2005-2014 and ...
(Date:3/22/2016)... , PROVO and ... -- Newborn Screening Ontario (NSO), which operates the highest ... for molecular testing, and Tute Genomics and UNIConnect, leaders ... technology respectively, today announced the launch of a project ... sequencing (NGS) testing panel. NSO has ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 27, 2016 , ... Parallel ... clinical trials, announced today the Clinical Reach Virtual Patient Encounter CONSULT module ... circle with the physician and clinical trial team. , Using the CONSULT module, patients ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... BOSTON , June 27, 2016   Ginkgo ... biology to industrial engineering, was today awarded as ... a selection of the world,s most innovative companies. ... at scale for the real world in the ... organism engineers work directly with customers including Fortune ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... NC (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... Researchers ... the most commonly-identified miRNAs in people with peritoneal or pleural mesothelioma. Their findings are ... to read it now. , Diagnostic biomarkers are signposts in the blood, lung ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... - FACIT has announced the creation of a ... Propellon Therapeutics Inc. ("Propellon" or "the Company"), to ... of first-in-class WDR5 inhibitors for the treatment of ... an exciting class of therapies, possessing the potential ... patients. Substantial advances have been achieved with the ...
Breaking Biology Technology: