By sequencing those samples, Dutton was able to identify the type of bacteria and fungi in each, and found that while there was wide variation among different samples, the samples could be separated into one of three main types of communities.
"What we ended up finding is there are microbes which occur in all the areas where cheese is made," she said. "What was interesting is if you make the same type of cheese in France or in Vermont, they will have very similar communities. What seems to be driving the type of community you find is the environment that the cheese-maker creates on the surface of the cheese, so you can make two cheeses that are very similar in two different places, or you can make two very different cheeses in the same place."
Working in the lab, Dutton and colleagues were able to isolate each species of microbe and fungi found in the samples and conduct tests aimed at reproducing the communities found on different cheeses. "In many environments, it is challenging to isolate all of the microbes, so we were surprised to find that we could culture all of the species present on cheese rinds. This gives us a great foundation for being able to study communities in the lab," says Julie Button, a postdoctoral researcher in the Dutton lab.
"If we know a particular cheese has certain species, we can mix them together and try to recreate that community in the lab," Dutton said. "For example, we might try to simply put those species together at the same time in equal amounts to see if the community that forms is similar to that found in the sample."
The study was also aimed at understanding how various species of bacteria and fungi interact, and identified several instances in which certain bacteria halted fungal growth, and vice versa.
"We are now working with chemists to chara
|Contact: Peter Reuell|