In many poor countries, most young girls, regardless of age, are forced to demonstrate their fertility once they are married.
"These children, because that's what they are, are discouraged from using contraceptives or might have to ask their husbands' permission, or they have no knowledge of or access to what they need," says Carole Presern, PhD, Executive Director of The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health and a midwife.
Violence common in child marriages
Loss of girlhood and health problems related to early pregnancy are not the only hazards confronting young brides.
Even though some parents believe early marriage will protect their daughters from sexual violence, the reverse is often true, according to UN studies.
Young girls who marry before the age of 18 have a greater chance of becoming victims of intimate partner violence than those who marry at an older age. This is especially true when the age gap between the child bride and spouse is large.
"Child marriage marks an abrupt and often violent introduction to sexual relations," says Claudia Garcia Moreno, M.D., of WHO, a leading expert in violence against women. "The young girls are powerless to refuse sex and lack the resources or legal and social support to leave an abusive marriage."
A complex issue with deep roots
Child marriage, which has existed for centuries, is a complex issue, rooted deeply in gender inequality, tradition and poverty. The practice is most common in rural and impoverished areas, where prospects for girls can be limited. In many cases, parents arrange these marriages and young girls have no choice.
Poor families marry off young daughters to reduce the number of children they need to feed, clothe and educate. In some cultures, a major incentive is the price prospective husbands will pay for youn
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