Navigation Links
Cell's split personality is a major discovery into neurological diseases
Date:5/7/2009

Researchers at the Universit de Montreal (UdeM) and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI), McGill University have discovered that cells which normally support nerve cell (neuron) survival also play an active and major role in the death of neurons in the eye. The findings, published this week in The Journal of Neuroscience, may lead to more streamlined therapies for a variety of acute and chronic neurological disorders, including glaucoma and retinal artery occlusion.

In many neurodegenerative diseases, a main factor that kills neurons is excessive levels of glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in many regions of the central nervous system (CNS). Diseases that occur as a result of high glutamate levels include hypoxicischemic brain injury (stroke), trauma, seizures, various forms of dementia and neurodegeneration. For years, the main explanation for the toxic effects of glutamate is that it overexcites neuronal cells via activation of glutamate receptors and thereby kills them.

"The most interesting aspect of our study and the reason we are so excited is that the pathway leading to glutamate-induced nerve cell death involves another vital player namely, glial cells," says Dr. Adriana Di Polo, neuroscientist at the UdeM. "Through careful experimentation we now know that glutamate activates signaling pathways in glial cells that then lead to neuronal death."

Glial cells are the most abundant cell type in the nervous system and are traditionally thought of as 'partner' cells to nerve cells providing support, nutrients and an optimal environment. However, this study indicates that glial cells also have a more sinister side that allows them to induce or exacerbate neuronal death in pathological conditions.

"Neuronal cell death induced by glutamate is a key step in a large number of injury and disease settings and this study is important because it provides a road-map for the cellular and molecular events that allow this to occur" says Dr. Philip Barker, neuroscientist at the MNI, "The fact that specific signaling events in glial cells are important for inducing neuronal cell death is surprising and suggests new therapeutic targets for conditions that involve excitotoxicity."

The findings of the MNI and UdeM study represent a paradigm shift from the main model of excitotoxicity that has been in place for many years. Until now, the central idea has been that glutamate, which is released upon injury, binds to and activates the glutamate receptors on neurons triggering massive calcium entry and cell death. However, clinical trials targeting glutamate receptors have been disappointing suggesting that these receptors play only a minor role in triggering neuronal death.

The study, supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, focused on nerve cells in the retina which convey information from the retina to the brain along the optic nerve, and are the primary link between the retina and the brain. The death of these retinal neurons from excess glutamate causes vision loss in various neurodegenerative disorders including optic neuropathies.

By disrupting signaling events in surrounding glial cells, the researchers were able to protect the majority of these neurons, confirming that glial cell events play a key role in death triggered by glutamate. This new understanding of the excitotoxic cascade of nerve cell death provides clear targets for successful therapeutic intervention of a wide-range of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.


'/>"/>

Contact: Anita Kar
anita.kar@mcgill.ca
514-398-3376
McGill University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. ESF EURYI award winner aims to stop cancer cells reading their own DNA
2. Newly created cancer stem cells could aid breast cancer research
3. AIDS interferes with stem cells in the brain
4. Clemson scientists shed light on molecules in living cells
5. Social habits of cells may hold key to fighting diseases
6. UF scientists reveal how dietary restriction cleans cells
7. Human derived stem cells can repair rat hearts damaged by heart attack
8. Scientists identify embryonic stem cells by appearance alone
9. Cells united against cancer
10. Pittsburgh scientists identify human source of stem cells with potential to repair muscle
11. U of M begins nations first clinical trial using T-reg cells from cord blood in leukemia treatment
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/22/2016)... 22, 2016   Acuant , the ... solutions, has partnered with RightCrowd ® ... Visitor Management, Self-Service Kiosks and Continuous Workforce ... add functional enhancements to existing physical access ... venues with an automated ID verification and ...
(Date:6/20/2016)... June 20, 2016 Securus Technologies, a ... solutions for public safety, investigation, corrections and monitoring ... involved, it has secured the final acceptance by ... for Managed Access Systems (MAS) installed. Furthermore, Securus ... to be installed by October, 2016. MAS distinguishes ...
(Date:6/9/2016)... , June 9, 2016  Perkotek an innovation leader in attendance control systems ... seamlessly log work hours, for employers to make sure the right employees are actually ... http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160609/377486LOGO ... ... ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016 Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ... clinical trials of its complement C3 inhibitor, APL-2. ... multiple ascending dose studies designed to assess the ... subcutaneous injection in healthy adult volunteers. ... as a single dose (ranging from 45 to ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... YORK , June 23, 2016 ... trading session at 4,833.32, down 0.22%; the Dow Jones Industrial ... S&P 500 closed at 2,085.45, down 0.17%. Stock-Callers.com has initiated ... INFI ), Nektar Therapeutics (NASDAQ: NKTR ), ... Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ: BIND ). Learn more about ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Velocity Products, a division ... tuned and optimized exclusively for Okuma CNC machining centers at The International Manufacturing ... collaboration among several companies with expertise in toolholding, cutting tools, machining dynamics and ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... 2016 Cell Applications, Inc. and StemoniX ... produce up to one billion human induced pluripotent ... week. These high-quality, consistent stem cells enable researchers ... spend more time doing meaningful, relevant research. This ... manufacturing process that produces affordable, reliable HiPSC for ...
Breaking Biology Technology: