Navigation Links
Cell division speed influences gene architecture
Date:4/23/2014

Speed-reading is a technique used to read quickly. It involves visual searching for clues to meaning and skipping non-essential words and/ or sentences. Similarly to humans, biological systems are sometimes under selective pressure to quickly "read" genetic information. Genes that need to be read quickly are usually small, as the smaller the encoding message, the easier it will be to read them quickly. Now, researchers from Instituto Gulbenkian de Cincia (IGC, Portugal) and Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (University of Algarve, Portugal) discovered that, besides size, the gene architecture is also important to the optimization of the "reading" process. This study was now published in the open access scientific journal eLife*.

The research team led by Rui Martinho hit upon these findings while studying the earlier stages of the development in the fruit fly (scientific name, Drosophila melanogaster). It was known that the timing and coordination of the cell cycle and gene expression are crucial for normal development. In the earlier stages of development, cells divide very rapidly, but at the same time they need to correctly 'read' their genes in order to produce the required proteins. Genes contain the 'code' to produce proteins, but also contain sequences, called introns, that are not required for this process and therefore need to be removed before protein synthesis.

By reducing the efficiency of the cell machinery that removes introns, the research team observed that the failure on the "reading" only occurred in those genes that were expressed during early embryogenesis, in other words when cells were dividing rapidly. This observation lead them to the idea that the process of intron removal is time-consuming, generating a problem in highly proliferative tissues that have a narrow time window to express genes and produce proteins. The researchers confirmed this hypothesis introducing an untypical gene containing multiple introns in the early embryo of fruit flies, and observed that fast dividing cells were unable to efficiently process such gene. Thus, the team concluded that genes expressed in fast dividing cells need to be not only short but also mostly without introns. This could explain why most of the genes expressed during Drosophila early embryogenesis do not have introns.

Rui Martinho says: "Our work shows that biological systems pushed speed-reading to another level: besides deleting non-essential words and sentences to make the text shorter, its entire organization was altered; being mostly without paragraphs. Nature response to speed-reading was simple and effective: short and highly compacted genes without introns."

Leonardo Guilgur, post-doctoral researcher at Rui Martinho's laboratory and first author of this work: add: "Recently it has been shown by another research group that inhibition of the machinery that removes introns has potent activity against most cancer cell lines (which are dividing cells). Therefore increasing our knowledge about the developmental role of intron removal efficiency not only contributes to our understanding of a key biological process, but also offers a new exploratory ground to develop anticancer drug treatments".

Similarly to Drosophila melanogaster, other organisms, such as mosquitoes and zebrafish also have many genes without introns being expressed in the early phases of embryonic development. This indicates that similar constraints to gene architecture are likely common during fast development.


'/>"/>
Contact: Ana Mena
anamena@igc.gulbenkian.pt
351-214-407-959
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. New key mechanism in cell division discovered
2. American Association for the Advancement of Science - Pacific Division convenes in Boise June 24-27
3. BWH launches a new research division focused on integrating systems biology and medicine
4. Division of labor offers insight into the evolution of multicellular life
5. IdentiSys acquires the Identification, Security and Presentation Divisions of Mountainland Business Systems, a Utah based reseller
6. Chromosome anchors organize DNA during cell division
7. Molecular forces are key to proper cell division
8. New insight into double-protected dance of cell division
9. Discovery of cell division master controller may improve understanding and treatment of cancer
10. Division of labor in the test tube
11. SourceMedical Announces Hiring of Clinical Expert for ASC Division
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Cell division speed influences gene architecture
(Date:6/9/2016)... an innovation leader in attendance control systems is proud to announce the introduction of ... make sure the right employees are actually signing in, and to even control the ... ... ... ...
(Date:6/2/2016)...   The Weather Company , an IBM Business (NYSE: ... capability in which consumers will be able to interact with ... via voice or text and receive relevant information about the ... Marketers have long sought an advertising solution that can create ... relevant and valuable; and can scale across millions of interactions ...
(Date:5/16/2016)... , May 16, 2016   EyeLock LLC ... today announced the opening of an IoT Center of ... strengthen and expand the development of embedded iris biometric ... unprecedented level of convenience and security with unmatched biometric ... one,s identity aside from DNA. EyeLock,s platform uses video ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Mosio, a leader ... “Clinical Trials Patient Recruitment and Retention Tips.” Partnering with experienced clinical research professionals, ... providing practical tips, tools, and strategies for clinical researchers. , “The landscape of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... SPRING, Md. , June 23, 2016 A ... collected from the crime scene to track the criminal down. ... and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses DNA ... Sound far-fetched? It,s not. The ... genome sequencing to support investigations of foodborne illnesses. Put as ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... June, 23, 2016  The Biodesign Challenge (BDC), a ... ways to harness living systems and biotechnology, announced its ... in New York City . ... students, showcased projects at MoMA,s Celeste Bartos Theater during ... , MoMA,s senior curator of architecture and design, and ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... 23, 2016 , ... In a new case report published today in STEM ... who developed lymphedema after being treated for breast cancer benefitted from an injection of ... dealing with this debilitating, frequent side effect of cancer treatment. , Lymphedema ...
Breaking Biology Technology: