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Building artificial cells will be a noisy business
Date:2/24/2014

p with a something that is half y and half z. But if you only have four molecules in a droplet, then perhaps they will all convert to y, and that's that: there's no z to be found."

In their experiments on the biochemical oscillator, however, Winfree and his colleagues discovered that this source of noisestochastic reaction dynamicswas relatively small compared to a source of noise that they did not anticipate: partitioning effects. In other words, the molecules that were captured in each droplet were not exactly the same. Some droplets initially had more molecules, while others had fewer; also, the ratio between the various elements was different in different droplets. So even before the differential timing of reactions could create stochastic dynamics, these tiny populations of molecules started out with dissimilar features. The differences between them were then further amplified as the biochemical reactions proceeded.

"To make an artificial cell work," says Winfree, "you need to know what your sources of noise are. The dominant thought was that the noise you're confronted with when you're engineering nanometer-scale components has to do with randomness of chemical reactions at that scale. But this experience has taught us that these stochastic reaction dynamics are really the next-level challenge. To get to that next level, first we have to learn how to deal with partitioning noise."

For Winfree, this is an exciting challenge: "When I program my computer, I can think entirely in terms of deterministic processes. But when I try to engineer what is essentially a program at the molecular scale, I have to think in terms of probabilities and stochastic (random) processes. This is inherently more difficult, but I like challenges. And if we are ever to succeed in creating artificial cells, these are the sorts of problems we need to address."


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Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
mr@caltech.edu
California Institute of Technology
Source:Eurekalert

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