Navigation Links
Bugs without borders
Date:12/9/2012

Researchers show that the global epidemic of Clostridium difficile 027/NAP1/BI in the early to mid-2000s was caused by the spread of two different but highly related strains of the bacterium rather than one as was previously thought. The spread and persistence of both epidemics were driven by the acquisition of resistance to a frontline antibiotic.

Unlike many other healthcare-associated bacteria, C. difficile produces highly resistant and infectious spores. These spores can promote the transmission of C. difficile and potentially facilitates its spread over greater geographical distances, even across continents.

This study highlights the ease and rapidity with which the hospital bacterium, C. difficile, can spread throughout the world, emphasising the interconnectedness of the global healthcare system.

"Between 2002 and 2006, we saw highly publicised outbreaks of C. difficile in hospitals across the UK, USA, Canada and Europe," says Dr Miao He, first author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "We used advanced DNA sequencing to determine the evolutionary history of this epidemic and the subsequent pattern of global spread.

"We found that this outbreak came from two separate epidemic strains or lineages of C. difficile, FQR1 and FQR2, both emerging from North America over a very short period and rapidly spread between hospitals around the world."

The team used the genetic history to map both epidemic strains of C. difficile using a global collection of samples from hospital patients between 1985 and 2010. They demonstrated that the two C. difficile strains acquired resistance to this antibiotic, fluoroquinolone, separately, a key genetic change that may have instigated the epidemics in the early 2000s.

"Up until the early 2000s, fluoroquinolone was an effective treatment for C. difficile infection," says Professor Brendan Wren, author from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. "We've seen that since these strains acquired resistance to this frontline antibiotic, not only is it now virtually useless against this organism, but resistance seems to have been a major factor in the continued evolution and persistence of these strains in hospitals and clinical settings."

The team found the first outbreak strain of C. difficile, FQR1 originated in the USA and spread across the country. They also saw sporadic cases of this strain of C. difficile in Switzerland and South Korea. They found that the second strain of C. difficile, FQR2, originated in Canada and spread rapidly over a much wider area, spreading throughout North America, Australia and Europe.

The team showed that the spread of C. difficile into the UK was frequently caused by long-range geographical transmission event and then spread extensively within the UK. They confirmed separate transmission events to Exeter, Ayrshire and Birmingham from North America and a transmission event from continental Europe to Maidstone. These events triggered large-scale C. difficile outbreaks in many hospitals across the UK in the mid-2000s.

"We have exposed the ease and rapidity with which these fluoroquinolone-resistant C. difficile strains have transmitted across the world," says Dr Trevor Lawley, lead author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Our research highlights how the global healthcare system is interconnected and how we all need to work together when an outbreak such as this occurs.

"Our study heralds a new era of forensic microbiology for the transmission tracking of this major global pathogen and will now help us understand at the genetic level how and why this pathogen has become so aggressive and transmissible worldwide. This research will act as a database for clinical researchers to track the genomic changes in C. difficile outbreaks."


'/>"/>
Contact: Aileen Sheehy
press.office@sanger.ac.uk
0044-012-234-92368
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. How to make high-end perfumes without whale barf
2. Feeding without the frenzy
3. Plant growth without light control
4. Production of chemicals without petroleum
5. NPointer from Neurotechnology Uses Hand Gestures to Control and Navigate Computer Programs Without a Mouse or Touchpad
6. Survival without water: A key trait of an aquatic invader to spread
7. Surviving without ice
8. How bumblebees find efficient routes without a GPS
9. Production of FRP components without release agents
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/29/2017)... CHICAGO , March 29, 2017  higi, the ... ecosystem in North America , today ... Partners and the acquisition of EveryMove. The new investment ... extensive set of tools to transform population health activities ... and lifestyle data. higi collects and secures ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... 27, 2017  Catholic Health Services (CHS) has ... Society (HIMSS) Analytics for achieving Stage 6 on ... . In addition, CHS previously earned a place ... an electronic medical record (EMR). "HIMSS ... of EMR usage in an outpatient setting.  This ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... 24, 2017 Research and Markets has announced ... Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025" report to ... The ... a CAGR of around 15.1% over the next decade to reach ... analyzes the market estimates and forecasts for all the given segments ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... ... Disappearing forests and increased emissions are the main causes of the evolving air ... living in larger cities are affected by air pollution related diseases. , That is ... globally - decided to take action. , “I knew I had to take action ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... October 10, 2017 , ... ... program has won a US2020 STEM Mentoring Award. Representatives of the FirstHand program ... in Volunteer Experience from US2020. , US2020’s mission is to change the trajectory ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... 2017 , ... The Pittcon Program Committee is pleased to ... who have made outstanding contributions to analytical chemistry and applied spectroscopy. Each award ... conference and exposition for laboratory science, which will be held February 26-March 1, ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... October 09, 2017 , ... ... 2017, in the medical journal, Epilepsia, Brain Sentinel’s SPEAC® System which uses ... EEG, in detecting generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The ...
Breaking Biology Technology: