Gold nanoparticles are becoming the well gold standard for medical-use nanoparticles. A new paper* by researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Cancer Institute's Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) proposes not only a sort of gold nanoparticle "testbed" to explore how the tiny particles behave in biological systems, but also a paradigm for how to characterize nanoparticle formulations to determine just what you're working with.
Prospective uses of gold nanoparticles, says NIST chemist Vince Hackley, include high-precision drug-delivery systems and diagnostic image enhancers. Gold is nontoxic and can be fashioned into particles in a range of sizes and shapes. By itself, gold doesn't do much biologically, but it can be "functionalized" by attaching, for instance, protein-based drugs along with targeting molecules that cluster preferentially around cancer cells. The nanoparticles are generally coated as well, to prevent them from clumping together and to avoid rapid clearance by the body's immune system.
NCL's Anil Patri notes that the coating composition, density and stability have a profound impact on the nanomaterial safety, biocompatibility (how well the nanoparticles distribute in the body), and efficacy of the delivery system. "Understanding these parameters through thorough characterization would enable the research community to design and develop better nanomaterials," he says.
To facilitate such studies, the NIST/NCL team set out to create a nanoparticle testbeda uniform, controllable core-shell nanoparticle that could be made-to-order with precise shape and size, and to which could be attached nearly any potentially useful functionality. Researchers then could study how controlled variations fared in a biological system.
Their trial system is based on regularly shaped branching molecules called dendrons, a term derived from the Greek word for "tree."
|Contact: Michael Baum|
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)