As a bat is much smaller than a whale and its prey is accordingly smaller, it needs to produce sounds with a very high frequency in order to achieve the same capacity to determine direction and size of its prey. However, the effect of the higher frequency will be partially cancelled out by the fact that the sound is transported five times as slowly and that the sound waves therefore are five times as short in air as in water.
The researchers conclude that bats and toothed whales produce signals for echolocation in the same frequency range, from 10 to 200 kHz.
The advantage of operating in water rather than air is that the whale's "acoustic field of vision" is up to six times larger than the bat's. The "acoustic field of vision" is the area where the animal can "see" their surroundings using echolocation. A sperm whale can echolocate prey up to 500 meters away, while a bat's echolocation distance is only 2-10 meters.
Bats fly fast and cover approx. one echolocation distance per second. Therefore they often spend less than a second on detecting and catching their prey. Whales move more slowly and have a much greater echolocation distance. Thus they have more time to pick up information from the echoes and they have time to select their prey more carefully. This may explain why bats do not seem to be particularly picky with their prey, while toothed whales are much more selective about their food. The bat simply does not have the time to choose - it goes for fast food!
In the last part of the hunting phase, when they approach their prey both toothed whales and
|Contact: Birgitte Svennevig|
University of Southern Denmark