Navigation Links
Barrier in mosquito midgut protects invading pathogens
Date:3/11/2010

What: Scientists studying the Anopheles gambiae mosquito the main vector of malaria have found that when the mosquito takes a blood meal, that act triggers two enzymes to form a network of crisscrossing proteins around the ingested blood. The formation of this protein barrier, the researchers found, is part of the normal digestive process that allows so-called "healthy" or commensal gut bacteria to grow without activating mosquito immune responses. But there is a downside: The barrier also prevents the mosquito's immune defense system from clearing any disease-causing agents that may have slipped into the blood meal, such as the Plasmodium malaria parasite, which in turn can be passed on to humans.

Disrupting the protein barrier, however, can trigger mosquito immune defenses to intervene and protect the insect from infection, notes the research team from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. The enzymes involved in the protein barrier are called immunomodulatory peroxidase (IMPer) and dual oxidase (Duox). The researchers believe it might be possible to prevent the formation of the protein barrier by immunizing people with IMPer or the proteins that crisscross. This vaccine would generate antibodies that, after a mosquito feeds on a human, could disrupt the barrier, reduce parasite survival in the mosquito and prevent malaria transmission.

The role of IMPer-Duox in forming a protective barrier was unexpected and previously unrecognized, according to Carolina Barillas-Mury, M.D., Ph.D., the senior study author. When her research group silenced, or turned off, the gene for either IMPer or Duox, the mosquito's midgut immune system took over and greatly reduced Plasmodium infection, indicating that IMPer and Duox are both required for parasite survival.

The IMPer-Duox system also is found in the mucous membrane of some human tissues, such as the colon. Dr. Barillas-Mury's group is investigating whether a protective protein barrier similar to that seen in mosquitoes also forms in vertebrates, including humans. If so, the barrier could be part of the process that normally prevents the colon from activating immune responses against commensal bacteria, as this would be harmful and lead to chronic inflammation. The existence of such a barrier in humans could have broad implications for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease.


'/>"/>

Contact: NIAID Communications Office
kpekoc@niaid.nih.gov
301-402-1663
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Auto immune response creates barrier to fertility; could be a step in speciation
2. Leading experts cite poor health and nutrition as major barrier to education in developing world
3. Scientists from the UGR prove that rivers do not act as barriers for groundwater flow
4. Building the blood-brain barrier
5. Fear of hypoglycemia a barrier to exercise for type 1 diabetics
6. Compromised skin barrier function plays a role in psorasis development
7. GEN reports on strategies to overcome blood-brain barrier
8. Breaking the barrier: Discovery of anti-resistance factors and novel ocean drugs
9. The sound of light: Innovative technology shatters the barriers of modern light microscopy
10. Investing wisely to save the Great Barrier Reef
11. Climate change poker: The barriers which are preventing a global agreement
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/7/2017)... 2017 Brandwatch , the leading social intelligence company, ... Trust to uncover insights to support its reporting, help direct ... The UK,s leading youth charity will be using Brandwatch Analytics social ... a better understanding of the topics and issues that are a ... ...
(Date:3/6/2017)... SAN MATEO, Calif. , March 6, 2017 ... predictive marketing and sales technology, today announced Predictive ... (AI) solution for infusing actionable sales intelligence into ... customers to automatically enable their sales organizations with ... contextual messages that allow for intelligent engagement. Predictive ...
(Date:3/2/2017)... , March 2, 2017 Summary ... to better understand Merck KGaA and its partnering interests ... https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/3605601/ Description The Partnering Deals and ... the partnering activity of one of the world,s leading ... are prepared upon purchase to ensure inclusion of the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:3/23/2017)... 23, 2017 Research and Markets has ... report to their offering. ... The Global Market for Bioproducts ... 2016 at a CAGR of 8.9%, This ... bioproducts into seven major product segments: bio-derived chemicals, biofuels, pharmaceuticals ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... -- BioPharmX Corporation (NYSE MKT: BPMX), a specialty pharmaceutical ... reported financial results for the quarter and year ... update on the company,s clinical development efforts and ... pleased to report that last year was a ... Krammer. "We achieved key clinical milestones and attracted ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... -- According to a report by Transparency Market Research ... to the presence of a large pool of participants; however, only ... and Sigma-Aldrich, compete with each other in this market. With Proliant ... 76% of this market in 2016.  ... As of now, a large number of vendors ...
(Date:3/22/2017)... , March 22, 2017 Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ... Regeneron Genetics Center (RGC), U.K. Biobank and GSK to generate ... U.K. Biobank resource. The initiative will enable researchers to gain ... medicines for a wide range of serious and life threatening ... ...
Breaking Biology Technology: