Navigation Links
Baby talk: The roots of the early vocabulary in infants' learning from speech
Date:10/30/2008

Although babies typically start talking around 12 months of age, their brains actually begin processing certain aspects of language much earlier, so that by the time they start talking, babies actually already know hundreds of words. While studying language acquisition in infants can be a challenging endeavor, researchers have begun to make significant progress that changes previous views of what infants learn, according to a new report by University of Pennsylvania psychologist Daniel Swingley. The report, published in the October issue of Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, describes an increasing emphasis among researchers in studying vocabulary development in infants.

Infants have a unique ability to discriminate speech-sound (phonetic) differences, but over time they lose this skill for differentiating sounds in languages other than their native tongue. For example, 6 month old babies who were learning English were able to distinguish between similar-sounding Hindi consonants not found in English, but they lost this ability by 12 months of age. Since the 1980s it has been known that infants start focusing on their language's consonants and vowels, sometimes to the exclusion of non-native sounds. More recently, researchers have increasingly focused on how infants handle whole words.

Recent research has shown that during infancy, babies learn not only individual speech sounds but also the auditory forms of words; that is, babies are not only aware of the pieces that make up a word, but they are aware of the entire word. These auditory forms of words allow children to increase their vocabulary and help them to eventually develop grammar. Although they may not know what the words mean, children as early as 8 months start learning the phonological (sound) forms of words and are able to recognize themand just being familiar with the words helps increase the children's vocabulary. Studies have shown that 18 month old children who are familiar with a word's form are better at learning what it means and are also able to differentiate it from similar sounding words.

Knowing word forms may also contribute to children's inferences about how their language works. For example, 7.5 month olds do not recognize words as being the same if they are spoken with different intonations or by a man and a woman. However, by 10.5 months of age, babies recognize the same words despite changes in the speaker or the intonation used. Another interesting finding was that although children learning a language can distinguish between long and short vowels, they interpret this difference according to the rules of their language. For instance, Dutch 18-month-olds considered tam and taam to be different words, while English 18-month-olds did notshowing children's early learning of how each language uses vowel length.

How can researchers find out what young children know about words and the forms of words while children have only just begun to talk? One method takes advantage of the fact that even young toddlers like to look at images or objects that we name. In these experiments, the children's eye movements are tracked while they are looking at two objects (for example, an apple and a dog). The researcher will say the name of one of the objects and see if the child's eyes move to that object. In this way, researchers can change the sound of the words slightly (for example, instead of "dog" say "tog") and see if the baby will look at the dog the same amount, as if indifferent to the change, or less, as is the case with adults who know that "dog" cannot be said as "tog." The results of those studies showed that the children were less likely to look at the correct object when it was mispronounced, indicating that by one year of age, children are able to recognize mispronunciations of words.

This new research in language acquisition indicates that infants learn the forms of many words and they begin to gather information about how these forms are used. The author notes that "these word forms then become the foundation of the early vocabulary, support children's learning of the language's phonological system, and contribute to the discovery of grammar."

In addition, there is a relationship between young children's performance in word recognition and their later language achievement. The author concludes that "testing very young children's ability to interpret spoken language, whether by identifying novel words as novel or by comprehending sentences, may prove a more sensitive predictor of children's language outcomes than simpler tests of speech-sound categorization."


'/>"/>

Contact: Barbara Isanski
bisanski@psychologicalscience.org
Association for Psychological Science
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. The emerging story of plant roots
2. UC biology prof traces his roots to the first Earth Day
3. Corns roots dig deeper into South America
4. How roots find a route
5. Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato
6. Could hairy roots become biofactories?
7. Hungry microbes share out the carbon in the roots of plants
8. Global Viral Forecasting Initiative receives $11M to implement pandemic early warning system
9. Early-stage gene transcription creates access to DNA
10. Reproducing early and often is the key to rapid evolution in plants
11. Stevens strengthens Dominican Republics Early Warning System for Inundations
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/3/2016)... England and DE SOTO, Kansas ... , U.S.-based Stroke Detection Plus® to offer Oncimmune,s ... risk assessment and early detection of lung cancer ... large employers, unions and individuals. --> Early ... unions and individuals. --> Oncimmune, a leader ...
(Date:3/2/2016)... March 2, 2016 ... the "Global Biometrics as a Service ... --> http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/cmt3hk/global_biometrics ) has ... Biometrics as a Service Market 2016-2020" ... Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/cmt3hk/global_biometrics ) ...
(Date:3/1/2016)... , March 1, 2016  (RSAC Booth #3041) – ... a whopping $118 billion is lost to false positives, ... and inaccurate fraud detection. At the RSA Conference 2016, ... way companies handle authentication by devaluing the data fraudsters ... analytics. --> --> ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:4/28/2016)... , April 28, 2016 The ... and Brayton Cryocoolers), Service (Technical Support, Product Repairs & ... - Global Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the ... Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 7.29% between ... data Tables and 94 Figures spread through 159 Pages ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... ... April 28, 2016 , ... ... hold an open house for regional manufacturers at its Maple Grove, Minnesota technical ... Okuma, Hardinge Group, Chiron and Trumpf. Almost 20 leading suppliers of tooling, ...
(Date:4/27/2016)... 2016 NanoStruck Technologies Inc. ... ( Frankfurt : 8NSK) gibt bekannt, ... 13. August 2015 die Genehmigung von der CNSX ... 200.000.000 Einheiten auf 400.000.000 Einheiten zu erhöhen, um ... wurden 157.900.000 Einheiten mit dem ersten Teil der ...
(Date:4/27/2016)... ... April 27, 2016 , ... A compact PET ... Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in existing third-party MRI systems. PET and ... in small animal subjects. Simultaneous PET/MRI imaging offers a solution to many challenges ...
Breaking Biology Technology: