Navigation Links
Animal evolution springs from 'Snowball Earth'

Biogeochemists have found new evidence linking "Snowball Earth" glacial events to the rise of early animals. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Study results appear in this week's issue of the journal Nature.

The controversial Snowball Earth hypothesis posits that, on several occasions, the Earth was covered from pole to pole by a thick sheet of ice lasting for millions of years.

These glaciations, the most severe in Earth history, occurred from 750 to 580 million years ago.

In the aftermath, the researchers discovered, the oceans were rich in phosphorus, a nutrient that controls the abundance of life in the oceans.

The team, led by scientists at the University of California Riverside, tracked phosphorus concentrations through Earth's history by analyzing the composition of iron-rich chemical precipitates. These precipitates accumulated on the seafloor and "scavenged" phosphorus from seawater.

The analyses revealed that there was a pronounced spike in marine phosphorus levels in the mid-Neoproterozoic (from ~750 to ~635 million years ago).

To explain these anomalously high concentrations, the researchers argue that the increase in erosion and chemical weathering on land that accompanied Snowball Earth glacial events led to the high amounts of phosphorus in the ocean.

The abundance of this nutrient, which is essential for life, in turn led to a spike in oxygen production via photosynthesis, according to Enriqueta Barrera, program director in the NSF's Division of Earth Sciences, which funded the research.

The subsequent accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere led to the emergence of complex life on Earth.

"In the geologic record, we found a signature for high marine phosphorus concentrations appearing in the immediate aftermath of Snowball Earth glacial events," said Noah Planavsky, the first author of the research paper, and a graduate student at UC Riverside.

"Phosphorus ultimately limits net primary productivity on geological timescales," said Plavansky. "High marine phosphorus levels would have facilitated a shift to a more oxygen-rich ocean-atmosphere system. This shift could have paved the way for the rise of animals and their ecological diversification."

Planavsky explained the link between marine phosphorus concentrations and the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere.

"High phosphorus levels would have increased biological productivity in the ocean and the associated production of oxygen by photosynthesis," he said.

Much of this organic matter is consumed, in turn, as a result of respiration reactions that also consume oxygen. However, the burial of some proportion of the organic matter results in a net increase of oxygen levels in the atmosphere.

Until now, scientists believed that geochemical conditions in the iron-rich ocean would have led to low phosphorus concentrations.

The researchers discovered no evidence of a phosphorus crisis after Snowball Earth glacial events, however, finding instead indications of an abundance of phosphorus.

"There are several known chemical fingerprints for increasing oxygen in the ocean and, by inference, in the atmosphere during the middle part of Neoproterozoic, and the rise of animals is an expected consequence," said Timothy Lyons, a biogeochemist at UC Riverside and the senior investigator in the study.

"These results may be the first to capture the nutrient driver that was behind this major step in the history of life. That driver was ultimately tied to the extreme climate of the period."

The scientists present data from some 700 individual samples of iron-oxide-rich rocks, which include new results as well as those obtained from a comprehensive survey of the literature.


Contact: Cheryl Dybas
National Science Foundation

Related biology news :

1. Phosphorus identified as the missing link in evolution of animals
2. Japanese researchers report on liver transplantation studies using animal and iPS cells
3. UW leading $7.5 million study of animal flight and aerial vehicles
4. Blueberries help fight artery hardening, lab animal study indicates
5. A biological solution to animal pandemics
6. Taking a new look at old digs: Trampling animals may alter Stone Age sites
7. Center integrates human, animal, environmental health
8. BU partners in 5-year, $7.5M grant to study animal flight
9. Yale develops new animal model for hemophilia A
10. Census of Marine Life program tracking animals on Pacific continental shelf
11. Marine animals suggest evidence for a trans-Antarctic seaway
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Animal evolution springs from 'Snowball Earth'
(Date:11/9/2015)... 2015 ... "Global Law Enforcement Biometrics Market 2015-2019" ... ) has announced the addition ... Market 2015-2019" report to their offering. ... ) has announced the addition of ...
(Date:11/4/2015)... --> --> ... Transparency Market Research "Home Security Solutions Market - Global Industry ... 2022", the global home security solutions market is expected to reach ... market is estimated to expand at a CAGR of ... Rising security needs among customers at homes, the emergence ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... 29, 2015   MedNet Solutions , an innovative ... of clinical research, is pleased to announce that it ... (MHTA) as one of only three finalists for a ... Small and Growing" category. The Tekne Awards honor ... superior technology innovation and leadership. iMedNet™ ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/30/2015)...  AbbVie, is introducing Good Morning Hypothyroidism ... routine for managing the life-long condition of hypothyroidism. When ... way the body absorbs it so resources encouraging patients ... are important. The goal of the new website ... hypothyroidism by establishing a daily routine, spirit of connection, ...
(Date:11/28/2015)... (PRWEB) , ... November 28, 2015 , ... • Jeon ... eco-friendly avian, porcine and rodent control solutions , ... and cinnamon oil, works across all sensory modalities including visual, smell, taste and touch, ...
(Date:11/26/2015)... 26, 2015 --> ... in imaging technologies, announced today that it has received a ... the Horizon 2020 European Union Framework Programme for Research and ... trial in breast cancer. , --> ... --> --> The study aims to ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... HOLLISTON, Mass. , Nov. 25, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... ), a biotechnology company developing bioengineered organ implants for ... will present at the LD Micro "Main Event" ... p.m. PT. The presentation will be webcast live and ... will also be available at the conference for one-on-one ...
Breaking Biology Technology: