Navigation Links
Ancient, bottom-dwelling critter proves: Newer isn't always better
Date:9/7/2012

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Tiny sea creatures called rhabdopleurids reside on the ocean floor, building homes of collagen on the shells of dead clams. Rhabdopleurid colonies are small, and the critters are by no means the dominant animals in their ecosystem.

But they have lived this way -- and survived -- for more than 500 million years. And in doing so, they have outlasted more elaborate species that also descended from a common ancestor, according to a new study in the journal Lethaia.

Though rhabdopleurids' age and modern existence are well-documented, the paper breaks new ground by identifying them as a predecessor to ancient zooplankton -- known as pelagic graptolites -- that went extinct about 350 million years ago.

The lesson, according to lead author Charles Mitchell: Newer isn't always better.

"We think that change is always going to lead us to a better place, that evolution is always going to lead to something better," said Mitchell, a University at Buffalo geology professor. "But all this progress in making all these wonderful pelagic graptolites didn't lead them to take over the world. They didn't survive, but these simple dudes, these bottom-dwelling creatures, did."

Mitchell's partners on the research included Michael J. Melchin from St. Francis Xavier University in Nova Scotia, Canada; Chris B. Cameron of the Universit de Montral; and Jrg Maletz from the Frei Universitt Berlin.

The paper, which appeared online on Aug. 2, used rhabdopleurids' structure and form to determine that they were some of the most primitive graptolites that ever existed.

While their zooplankton relatives evolved rapidly, splitting into many new species and evolving many new traits, rhabdopleurids pretty much stayed the same over the course of history.

As the zooplankton developed ways to live closer to the ocean's surface, the rhabdopleurids continued dwelling on the ocean floor. The zooplankton became important players in their new ecosystems. The rhabdopleurids remained inconspicuous.

Ultimately, the conservative approach won out: The rhabdopleurids survived and are still around today, living in areas from Bermuda to the Bering Sea. The zooplankton graptolites went extinct.

"High speciation rates generally go hand in hand with high extinction rates, and likewise low with low," Mitchell said. "Conservative lineages may weather the storms of climate change and other events, but do not become big parts of the ecosystem, whereas the major players are impressive but often brought low by mass extinction and other 'slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.'"

The idea that conservative approaches can bear rewards over time is one that holds true not only in biology, but in other fields of study as well, Mitchell said. He pointed to financial markets as one example.

"You can pick 'safe' investments like bonds and blue chip stocks, and so expose your money to low risk of decline in values, but the yield is low, as well: Values do not grow much," Mitchell said. "On the other hand one can pick high-yield tech stocks like Facebook and Apple, but the risk of declines in value, especially in bad economic times, is also high."

Though humble, rhabdopleurids and the colonies they build are beautiful to behold under a microscope.

The creatures themselves are about a millimeter long and Y-shaped, with a pair of tentacled arms extending from a narrow body to filter food from the water. The colonies they fashion are whimsical-looking structures, consisting of a network of copper-colored tubes that resemble tiny elephant trunks, each one bearing numerous ridges.

The knowledge that rhabdopleurids are ancient graptolites will enable researchers to gain insight into poorly understood aspects of graptolite biology. Studying rhabdopleurids could reveal new clues about how early graptolites looked and reproduced, and even what they ate.
'/>"/>

Contact: Charlotte Hsu
chsu22@buffalo.edu
716-645-4655
University at Buffalo
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Changes in water chemistry leave lake critters defenseless
2. Impact of warming climate doesnt always translate to streamflow
3. UGA study finds theres not always safety in numbers when it comes to extinction risk
4. What sounds good doesnt always taste good
5. Scientists find that rain may not always be a welcome thing to waterbirds
6. New methods for better purification of wastewater
7. Breakthroughs in Chikungunya research from A*STAR spell new hope for better treatment and protection
8. UNH researchers find African farmers need better climate change data to improve farming practices
9. Giant squids giant eyes: The better to see hungry whales with
10. Improved loblolly pines better for the environment, study finds
11. Fish larvae find the reef by orienting: The earlier the better
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Ancient, bottom-dwelling critter proves: Newer isn't always better
(Date:3/23/2016)... Massachusetts , March 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... im Interesse erhöhter Sicherheit Gesichts- und Stimmerkennung ... Xura, Inc. (NASDAQ: MESG ), ... bekannt, dass das Unternehmen mit SpeechPro zusammenarbeitet, ... aus der Finanzdienstleistungsbranche, wird die Möglichkeit angeboten, ...
(Date:3/22/2016)... Ontario , PROVO and ... Newborn Screening Ontario (NSO), which operates the ... for molecular testing, and Tute Genomics and UNIConnect, ... management technology respectively, today announced the launch of a ... next-generation sequencing (NGS) testing panel. NSO ...
(Date:3/18/2016)... 2016 --> --> ... Manned & Unmanned Vehicles, Physical infrastructure and Perimeter Surveillance & ... the border security market and the continuing migration crisis in ... Europe has led visiongain to publish this unique ... --> defence & security companies in the border ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... /PRNewswire/ - FACIT has announced the creation of ... company, Propellon Therapeutics Inc. ("Propellon" or "the Company"), ... portfolio of first-in-class WDR5 inhibitors for the treatment ... represent an exciting class of therapies, possessing the ... cancer patients. Substantial advances have been achieved with ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016  The Biodesign Challenge (BDC), a university ... to harness living systems and biotechnology, announced its winning ... New York City . ... showcased projects at MoMA,s Celeste Bartos Theater during the ... MoMA,s senior curator of architecture and design, and ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016 Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today ... trials of its complement C3 inhibitor, APL-2. The ... ascending dose studies designed to assess the safety, ... injection in healthy adult volunteers. Forty ... a single dose (ranging from 45 to 1,440mg) ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Pleasant Prairie, WI (PRWEB) , ... June 23, ... ... sciences consultancy focused on quality, regulatory and technical consulting, provides a free ... webinar is presented on July 13, 2016 at 12pm CT at no charge. ...
Breaking Biology Technology: