Navigation Links
Activation of cortical type 2 cannabinoid receptors ameliorates ischemic brain injury

Philadelphia, PA, February 21, 2013 A new study published in the March issue of The American Journal of Pathology suggests that cortical type 2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors might serve as potential therapeutic targets for cerebral ischemia.

Researchers found that the cannabinoid trans-caryophyllene (TC) protected brain cells from the effects of ischemia in both in vivo and in vitro animal models. In rats, post-ischemic treatment with TC decreased cerebral infarct size and edema. In cell cultures composed of rat cortical neurons and glia exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), TC decreased neuronal injury and mitochondrial depolarization, specifically through type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) pathways.

"To our knowledge, novel data presented in this study provide evidence for the first time supporting a previously unappreciated role of cortical CB2R, especially neuronal CB2Rs, in ischemia," says lead investigator Won-Ki Kim, PhD, of the Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, Korea University in Seoul. "This study suggests that further investigation is warranted to establish the clinical usefulness of TC as a preventative and therapeutic agent for treatment of stroke."

Results presented in the study shed light on the anatomy and mechanism of action of CB2R-mediated neuroprotection. In the in vivo study, which was performed in rats, the right middle cerebral artery was occluded for 1.5 hours to mimic an ischemic stroke; blood flow was allowed to return for the next 24 hours. Three hours after the occlusion began, the animals were treated with TC; some animals also received AM630, a CB2R antagonist. The next day, the brains were removed, and the volume of the infarct and extent of cerebral edema were measured.

Using immunocytochemistry, the investigators found evidence of CB2Rs in the cortex of both control and ischemic brains, mostly in cortical neurons but also to a lesser extent in some glial cells. This finding in itself is important because the question of whether CB2Rs are present in the cortex has long been a matter of debate, say the authors.

Post-ischemic treatment with TC reduced infarct size by 53.8% and reduced edema by 51.9%. However, co-administration of the CB2R antagonist AM630 completely blocked the protective effect of TC. Further analysis indicated that CB2R activation is involved in the ability of TC to induce cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in ischemic tissue.

Cell-culture studies of embryonic rat cortical neurons and glia exposed to OGD/R to simulate ischemic insult confirmed some of the findings of the in vivo studies and contributed to further understanding about cellular effects of ischemia and TC treatment. In the cultures, TC decreased neuronal injury, intracellular oxidative stress, and mitochondrial depolarization following OGD/R, and the effects were reversed by AM630 but not by a CB1R antagonist, AM251. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TC enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP protein kinase (AMPK) and CREB, while selective AMPK and CREB inhibitors blocked TC's neuroprotection. Other findings indicated that the anti-ischemic effect of TC was not mediated by NMDA receptor antagonism or antioxidant activity.

TC is a major cannabinoid derived from the essential oil of the flowering plant Cannabis sativa, but has a fundamentally different structure from classical cannabinoids. Unlike agents which activate CB1 receptors, selective CB2R receptor agonists do not have psychoactive side effects. TC appears to maintain CB2R agonist activity when administered orally and is a common ingredient found in many food additives and folk medicines. The intriguing results of the present study suggest that the anti-ischemic benefits of TC deserve further exploration.


Contact: David Sampson
Elsevier Health Sciences

Related biology news :

1. Early activation of immune response could lead to better vaccines
2. Study: Viral reactivation a likely link between stress and heart disease
3. Tamoxifen ameliorates symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
4. Stanford scientists develop gene therapy approach to grow blood vessels in ischemic limbs
5. REST is crucial for the timing of brain development
6. Holding a mirror to brain changes in autism
7. Strong scientific evidence that eating berries benefits the brain
8. The Japanese traditional therapy, honokiol, blocks key protein in inflammatory brain damage
9. Step forward in research into new treatments for brain edema
10. University of Alberta led research may have discovered how memories are encoded in our brains
11. Nanotherapy: Treating deadly brain tumors by delivering big radiation with tiny tools
Post Your Comments:
(Date:10/29/2015)... Mich. , Oct. 29, 2015  Rubicon ... Genomics for U.S. distribution of its DNA library ... kit and Rubicon,s new ThruPLEX Plasma-seq kit. ThruPLEX ... enable the preparation of NGS libraries for liquid ... for diagnostic and prognostic applications in cancer and ...
(Date:10/27/2015)... 27, 2015 In the present market scenario, ... for various industry verticals such as banking, healthcare, defense, ... growing demand for secure & simplified access control and ... as hacking of bank accounts, misuse of users, , ... as PC,s, laptops, and smartphones are expected to provide ...
(Date:10/26/2015)... and LAS VEGAS , Oct. 26, ... , an innovator in modern authentication and a founding ... the launch of its latest version of the Nok ... organizations to use standards-based authentication that supports existing and ... Authentication Suite is ideal for organizations deploying customer-facing applications ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... , Nov. 25, 2015  PharmAthene, Inc. (NYSE ... has adopted a stockholder rights plan (Rights Plan) in ... operating loss carryforwards (NOLs) under Section 382 of the ... --> PharmAthene,s use of its NOLs could ... change" as defined in Section 382 of the Code. ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... -- Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: NBIX ) announced today ... Neurocrine Biosciences, will be presenting at the 27th Annual ... . .   Listeners ... prior to the presentation to download or install any ... available on the website approximately one hour after the ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... 25, 2015 The Global ... a professional and in-depth study on the current ... (Logo: ) , The ... including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. ... international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Cepheid (NASDAQ: CPHD ) today announced ... conference, and invited investors to participate via webcast. ... December 1, 2015 at 11.00 a.m. Eastern Time ... December 1, 2015 at 11.00 a.m. Eastern Time ... York, NY      Tuesday, December 1, 2015 at ...
Breaking Biology Technology: