Source: Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC007302, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007302
Title: Application of a data-assimilation model to variability of Pacific sardine spawning and survivor habitats with ENSO in the California Current System
Authors: Hajoon Song: Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA;
Arthur J. Miller: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA;
Sam McClatchie, Edward D. Weber, and Karen M. Nieto: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, La Jolla, California, USA;
David M. Checkley Jr.: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
5. Lake Erie's thermal structure and circulation are backward
A series of high-resolution measurements has shown that Lake Erie, one of the North American Great Lakes, is, in some respects, backward. In the majority of thermally stratified lakes, the thermocline, a thin subsurface layer of rapid temperature change, is deeper near the coast than near the center of the lake. Lake Erie, however, has an inverted thermocline, which is deeper offshore than at the coast. Beletsky et al. first mapped this bowl-shaped thermocline during the summer of 2005 with a large network of temperature sensors.
In 2005, and again in 2007, moored instruments that collected temperature
readings at 1 meter (3.3 feet) depth intervals were spread 30 to 50 kilometers (19
to 31 miles) apart around the central basin of the lake. Supporting these point
measurements, the authors collected higher-resolution temperature profiles with a
boat-towed sensor. The authors find that th
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American Geophysical Union