5 cities across the country those with populations of 100,000 or greater for which adequate records were available. When they included in their tallies both natural renewable water resources and the capacity to import, pump, and store water, the authors find that only 17 percent of the U.S. population not 47 percent is vulnerable to water scarcity issues. They find that when water management infrastructure resources were taken into consideration, every U.S. city studied could provide an annual mean of 600 liters (about 160 gallons) per person per day or greater, even in areas where the local availability of water is scarce.
The authors find, however, that some cities, such as Miami, Florida, appear more vulnerable to water scarcity under the new assessment. Though Miami receives a high volume of water, a lack of storage or import capacity suggests that it is less resilient to natural variability than cities with more robust water management infrastructures.
Water Resources Research, doi: 10.1029/2012WR012335, 2012
Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States
J.C. Padowski and J.W. Jawitz: Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
3. First direct evidence that breaking waves cause horizontal eddies
As ocean waves pass from deeper water into the shallow coastal regions, they begin to break, churning up the surf zone waters. At the edges of the crests of the breaking waves, horizontally-rotating eddies (vertical vortices) are generated, converting some of the waves' kinetic energy into turbulence. These horizontally-rotating eddies are an important mechanism for dispersing nutrients, larvae, bacteria, sediments, and other suspended objects along the coastline.
Using a 10-meter-diameter (33-fooPage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Related biology news :1
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