The growing ease of DNA sequencing has led to enormous advancements in the scientific field. Through extensive networked databases, researchers can access genetic information to gain valuable knowledge about causative and preventative factors for disease, and identify new targets for future treatments. But the wider availability of such information also has a significant downside the risk of revealing personal information.
Researchers from Tel Aviv University and the Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research in Cambridge, MA, have developed an algorithm that can identify last names using information gathered from the Y chromosome, which passes from father to son. This finding shows how genetic data can be used to compromise an individual's privacy, says Prof. Eran Halperin of TAU's Blavatnik School of Computer Science and Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, who worked on the project with PhD student David Golan of TAU's Department of Statistics and Operations Research and Dr. Yaniv Ehrlich of the Whitehead Institute.
Using chromosomal data drawn from genetic databases, the researchers were able to identify the surname of one in every eight people from a sample of 911 American men. Sometimes other private information could even be discovered, including their geographic locations or the identities of their relatives. Published in the journal Science, this result should serve as a call to action for safeguards, the researchers note.
Weighing science and privacy
"Having such data is critical to scientific research, so we must look for ways to minimize the risk, including better techniques for encrypting genetic data, education for study participants and researchers, and new legislation to protect such information and prevent its misuse," Prof. Helperin says.
Although information about a person's entire genome is often available, this project sought to determine how much can be discover
|Contact: George Hunka|
American Friends of Tel Aviv University