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A genetic identity card for Plasmodium populations to improve control strategies
Date:11/8/2007

ected individuals are bitten regularly by mosquito vectors. Consequently, there is a high frequency of infection of one subject by several Plasmodium falciparum with different genotypes. Monoinfected patients, the only ones that can be selected for a pertinent genetic analysis, are therefore too rare to enable scientists to obtain representative results.

Assays on short sequences of DNA located on the 14 chromosome pairs of the parasite genome enabled the IRD and CNRS team to draw up quite a detailed genetic identity card of the different populations studied. They revealed an extremely high rate of genetic diversity but also a considerable overall rate of inbreeding, approaching 50%. This high level of inbreeding can be explained by the existence of a process of self-fertilization, selfing (3), combined with a non-random genotypic distribution of parasite oocysts in the mosquito vector guts. The set of data corroborated those acquired in Kenya in 2005. They confirmed the persistence of a strong population genetic structure of Plasmodium between mosquito vectors, associated with a reproduction regime combining genetic mixing and selfing.

A genetic identity card of Plasmodium falciparum populations could help improve malaria control strategies. The use of mathematical models that take into account genetic information about parasite infection foci could then feasibly predict the changes occurring in genes involved in drug resistance. Therapies could then be targeted according to the evolution dynamics of Plasmodium populations with the aim of controlling parasite populations while minimizing resistance development. This study also proved that the parasites overall reproduction strategy is the same in the two vector species investigated. One of the approaches envisaged by the international scientific community for limiting morbidity from malaria would entail the progressive eradication of its principal vector Anopheles gambiae.

To achieve this some resea
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Contact: Gregory Flechet
fichesactu@paris.ird.fr
33-014-803-7607
Institut de Recherche Pour le Dveloppement
Source:Eurekalert

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