Study participants completed two 28-day feeding periods in random order one featuring high-glycemic-load carbohydrates, which typically are low-fiber, highly processed carbs such as white sugar, fruit in canned syrup and white flour; and the other featuring low-glycemic-load carbohydrates, which are typically higher in fiber, such as whole-grain breads and cereals. The diets were identical in carbohydrate content, calories and macronutrients. All food was provided by the Hutchinson Center's Human Nutrition Laboratory, and study participants maintained weight and physical activity throughout.
"Because the two diets differed only by glycemic load, we can infer that the changes we observed in important biomarkers were due to diet alone," Neuhouser said.
"The bottom line is that when it comes to reducing markers of chronic-disease risk, not all carbohydrates are created equal. Quality matters," she said. "There are easy dietary changes people can make. Whenever possible, choose carbohydrates that are less likely to cause rapid spikes in blood glucose." These types of low-glycemic-load carbs include whole grains; legumes such as kidney beans, soy beans, pinto beans and lentils; milk; and fruits such as apples, oranges, grapefruit and pears. Neuhouser also recommends avoiding high-glycemic-load carbohydrates that quickly raise blood glucose. These include highly processed foods that are full of white sugar and white flour, and sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast cereals.
|Contact: Kristen Lidke Woodward|
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center