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A detailed look at HIV in action
Date:1/30/2014

e this phenomenon, known as a virological synapse, using electron microscopy.

"We were able to see one cell producing a viral bud that is contacting the cell next to it, suggesting that it's about to infect directly," Ladinsky says. "The space between those two cells represents the virological synapse."

Finally, the team found pools of HIV accumulating between cells where there was no indication of a virological synapse. This suggested that a virological synapse, which may be protected from some of the body's immune defenses, is not the only way in which HIV can infect new cells. The finding of HIV transfer via free pools of free virus offers hope that treatment with protein-based drugs, such as antibodies, could be an effective means of augmenting or replacing current treatment regimens that use small-molecule antiretroviral drugs.

"We saw these pools of virus in places where we had not initially expected to see them, down deep in the intestine," he explains. "Most of the immune cells in the gut are found higher up, so finding large amounts of the virus in the crypt regions was surprising."

The team will continue their efforts to look at HIV and related viruses under natural conditions using additional animal models, and potentially people.

"The end goal is to look at a native infection in human tissue to get a real picture of how it's working inside the body, and hopefully make a positive difference in fighting this epidemic," says Bjorkman.


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Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
debwms@caltech.edu
626-395-3227
California Institute of Technology
Source:Eurekalert

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