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A chip off the early hominin tooth
Date:9/16/2010

Were our early mammalian ancestors vegetarians, vegans or omnivores? It's difficult for anthropologists to determine the diet of early mammalians because current fossil analysis provides too little information. But a new method that measures the size of chips in tooth fossils can help determine the kinds of foods these early humans consumed.

Prof. Herzl Chai of Tel Aviv University's School of Mechanical Engineering, in collaboration with scientists from George Washington University and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), has developed an equation for determining how the size of a chip found in the enamel of a tooth relates to the bite force needed to produce the chip. With the aid of this information, researchers can better determine the type of food that animals, and early humans, could have consumed during their lifetimes.

Teeth are the only relevant fossils with staying power, Prof. Chai explains. Made of hard, mineralized material, teeth from animals that are thousands of years old remain relatively intact. Teeth that display a greater number of large chips indicate that animals like our early ancestors were consuming harder foods such as nuts, seeds or items with bones. A lesser amount of small chips demonstrates that the animal's diet more likely consisted of softer foods, such as vegetation. Dr. Chai's findings were recently reported in the journal Biology Letters.

Joining anthropology and mechanical engineering

In the recent study, Prof. Chai combined his mechanical engineering background with the expertise of anthropologists at George Washington University and material scientists at NIST to develop a simple equation to predict the maximum bite force used to create a tooth chip. The equation correlates well with a commonly-used equation from jaw mechanics ― a more complex approach for determining the maximum bite force an animal can deliver.

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Contact: George Hunka
ghunka@aftau.org
212-742-9070
American Friends of Tel Aviv University
Source:Eurekalert  

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