Kleinrock graduated from the Bronx High School of Science, received a Bachelors in Electrical Engineering from the City College of New York, and a master's and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences from MIT.
Robert Lefkowitz - Duke University
For his discovery of the seven transmembrane receptors, deemed the largest, most versatile, and most therapeutically accessible receptor signaling system, and for describing the general mechanism of their regulation, influencing all fields of medical practice.
Robert Lefkowitz is an American physician best known for his work with G protein-coupled receptors. He is the James B. Duke Professor of Medicine and Biochemistry at Duke University, as well as an investigator for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. His research program is concerned with the molecular properties and regulatory mechanisms that control the function of plasma membrane receptors for hormones and drugs under normal and pathological circumstances.
Cells in the human body are constantly exposed to a variety of chemical signals-hormones, neurotranmitters, growth factors, and sometimes even drugs-that they need to interpret and translate into a response. This task is handled by receptors that dot cell membranes. Lefkowitz has essentially defined the field of receptor biology through his work with G protein-coupled receptors, the largest and most pervasive family of cell receptors. A thousand or more of these rec
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National Science Foundation