Researchers funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) at the University of Oxford have uncovered a clue that may help to explain why the earliest evidence of complex multicellular animal life appears around 550 million years ago, when atmospheric oxygen levels on the planet rose sharply from 3% to their modern day level of 21%.
The team, led by Professor Chris Schofield, has found that humans share a method of sensing oxygen with the world's simplest known living animal - Trichoplax adhaerens - suggesting the method has been around since the first animals emerged around 550 million years ago.
This discovery, published today (17 December) in the January 2011 edition of EMBO Reports, throws light on how humans sense oxygen and how oxygen levels drove the very earliest stages of animal evolution.
Professor Schofield said "It's absolutely necessary for any multicellular organism to have a sufficient supply of oxygen to almost every cell and so the atmospheric rise in oxygen made it possible for multicellular organisms to exist.
"But there was still a very different physiological challenge for these organisms than for the more evolutionarily ancient single-celled organisms such as bacteria. Being multicelluar means oxygen has to get to cells not on the surface of the organism. We think this is what drove the ancesters of Trichoplax adhaerens to develop a system to sense a lack of oxygen in any cell and then do something about it."
The oxygen sensing process enables animals to survive better at low oxygen levels, or 'hypoxia'. In humans this system responds to hypoxia, such as is caused by high altitudes or physical exertion, and is very important for the prevention of stroke and heart attacks as well as some types of cancer.
Trichoplax adhaerens is a tiny seawater organism that lacks any organs and has only five types of cells, giving it the appearance of an amoeba. By a
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Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council