Navigation Links
Second messenger


In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay a signal within a cell. They are synthesized or released by specific enzymatic reactions, usually as a result of an external signal that was received by a transmembrane receptor and pre-processed by other membrane-associated proteins. There are three basic types of second messenger molecules:

  • Hydrophobic molecules like diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositols are membrane-associated and diffuse from the plasma membrane into the juxtamembrane space where they can reach and regulate membrane-associated effector proteins.
  • Hydrophilic molecules are water-soluble molecules, like cAMP, cGMP, and Ca2+, that are located within the cytosol.
  • gases, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), that can diffuse both through cytosol and across cellular membranes.

These intracellular messengers have some properties in common:

  • They can be synthesized/released and broken down again in specific reactions by enzymes.
  • Some (like Ca2+) can be stored in special organelles and quickly released when needed.
  • Their production/release and destruction can be localized, enabling the cell to limit space and time of signal activity.

'"/>


(Date:10/11/2018)... ... October 11, 2018 , ... Better lives ... National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals (NIIMBL). The Institute, a public-private partnership ... biopharmaceutical manufacturing and workforce development in the United States. Biopharmaceuticals are important because ...
(Date:10/5/2018)... ... October 04, 2018 , ... High dose of biotin ... the tests such as cardiac troponin has serious clinical complications. There is an increasing ... prevalence is still unknown. , High dose of biotin supplement use may continue ...
(Date:10/2/2018)... (PRWEB) , ... October 02, 2018 , ... Stuart is a fun-loving eight-year-old Labrador retriever. ... According to his owner, Cynthia, “He loves playing ball so much that whenever anyone comes ... want to play a game of fetch.” In early 2017, Stuart began limping and ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
Other biology definition