Navigation Links
Second messenger


In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay a signal within a cell. They are synthesized or released by specific enzymatic reactions, usually as a result of an external signal that was received by a transmembrane receptor and pre-processed by other membrane-associated proteins. There are three basic types of second messenger molecules:

  • Hydrophobic molecules like diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositols are membrane-associated and diffuse from the plasma membrane into the juxtamembrane space where they can reach and regulate membrane-associated effector proteins.
  • Hydrophilic molecules are water-soluble molecules, like cAMP, cGMP, and Ca2+, that are located within the cytosol.
  • gases, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), that can diffuse both through cytosol and across cellular membranes.

These intracellular messengers have some properties in common:

  • They can be synthesized/released and broken down again in specific reactions by enzymes.
  • Some (like Ca2+) can be stored in special organelles and quickly released when needed.
  • Their production/release and destruction can be localized, enabling the cell to limit space and time of signal activity.

'"/>


(Date:1/22/2015)... , Jan. 9, 2015 Valid S.A. ("Company") (BM&FBOVESPA: VLID3 ... in general the State of Washington,s ... a new enrollment and central issuance system for driver,s licenses ... The project planning and development will start in January ...
(Date:1/22/2015)... MADISON, Wis. , Jan. 15, 2015  BellBrook ... for drug discovery, announced the launch of a ... of the company,s Transcreener UDP Assay, a high ... enzymes. The new assay will allow for sensitive ...
(Date:1/22/2015)... Issued by Small Cap IR. In 2011, Nilson Report,s annual ... merchants on the leading payment cards rose to $135.3 billion ... prepaid cards reached 6.54 billion.  Eight million credit card users ... 2012, and credit and debit card fraud resulted in $11.27 ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Valid USA Signs Contract For Washington Driver's License Issuance 2BellBrook Labs Launches a High Throughput Screening Assay for Glycosyltransferases with TR-FRET Readout 2$4.80 Near Term Price Target with "Buy" given by CapRock Research for NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: NXTD) issued by Small Cap IR 2
... Philadelphia, PA, April 30, 2012 It is often ... eating habits, as they try to set a good example ... the addition of children into the home may affect parents, ... juggling schedules, or a child,s eating preferences may influence how ...
... can cause obesity, the fear of not having enough food ... to be presented Saturday, April 28, at the Pediatric Academic ... about not having enough food to feed one,s family, a ... families often are overweight, too. "Understanding the reasons why ...
... A water-rich polka dot pattern takes over the traditional rectangular ... years of Landsat images. In the dry Texas panhandle near ... irrigation, a farming method that improves water distribution to fields. ... Center-pivot irrigation works by pumping water from the center of ...
Cached Biology News:Starting a family does not encourage parents to eat healthier 2Fear of not having enough food may lead to obesity 2NASA's Landsat satellites see Texas crop circles 2
Other biology definitionOther Tags