Navigation Links
Second messenger


In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay a signal within a cell. They are synthesized or released by specific enzymatic reactions, usually as a result of an external signal that was received by a transmembrane receptor and pre-processed by other membrane-associated proteins. There are three basic types of second messenger molecules:

  • Hydrophobic molecules like diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositols are membrane-associated and diffuse from the plasma membrane into the juxtamembrane space where they can reach and regulate membrane-associated effector proteins.
  • Hydrophilic molecules are water-soluble molecules, like cAMP, cGMP, and Ca2+, that are located within the cytosol.
  • gases, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), that can diffuse both through cytosol and across cellular membranes.

These intracellular messengers have some properties in common:

  • They can be synthesized/released and broken down again in specific reactions by enzymes.
  • Some (like Ca2+) can be stored in special organelles and quickly released when needed.
  • Their production/release and destruction can be localized, enabling the cell to limit space and time of signal activity.

'"/>


(Date:12/18/2018)... ... December 18, 2018 , ... CP Merritt is a national champion ... for many years however in 2006, he had a medical setback that caused him ... that he suffered from cartilage degeneration in his right rear fetlock. Such an ...
(Date:12/13/2018)... ... December 12, 2018 , ... NDA Partners Chief ... firm’s prominent Expert Consultants, was recently honored by the American Association of Pharmaceutical ... working in pharmaceutical science, technology, engineering, or education and whose contributions to the ...
(Date:12/13/2018)... ... ... New research by Florida Polytechnic University faculty and students has the goal of ... main causes of car accidents and fatalities on the roads. , ... computer science, uses a microcomputer, a camera, and a buzzer. The camera aims at ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
Other biology definition